NC State
  • Researchpp 9981-9993Querido, V. A., d'Almeida, J. R. M., and Silva, F. A. (2019). "Development and analysis of sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica L.) fiber-reinforced cement composites," BioRes. 14(4), 9981-9993.AbstractArticlePDF

    Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica L.) fiber-reinforced cement composites were developed and analyzed. Dried sponge gourd fruit’s fibrous vascular system forms a natural 3D network that can reinforce matrices in composite materials, diverting cracks along the complex array of 3D interfaces between the fibers and the cementitious matrix. To avoid fiber deterioration, the cement paste was modified by incorporating pozzolanic materials. The fibers were mechanically characterized by tensile testing of strips of the 3D natural fiber array and of single fibers extracted from the array. The fibers had an average tensile strength of 140 MPa and an average Young’s modulus up to 28 GPa. Image analysis showed that the fiber spatial distribution inside the 3D network was random. The modified cement paste was characterized by its workability (flow table test) and mechanical behavior (compression and three-point bending tests), with average results of 430 mm, 62.7 MPa, and 6.2 MPa, respectively. Under bending, the cement matrix collapsed after the first crack. The sponge gourd-cement composite manufactured with 1 wt% of fibers showed an average flexural strength of 9.2 MPa (approximately 50% greater than the unreinforced matrix). Importantly, the composite also presented a limited deflection-hardening behavior. These results support sponge gourd’s possible use as reinforcement in cement matrix composites.

  • Researchpp 9994-10003Karbalaei Esmaeil, M. H., Talaeipour, M., Bazyar, B., Mirshokraei, S. A., and Khademi Eslam, H. (2019). "Two-step delignification of peracetic acid and alkali from sugar cane bagasse," BioRes. 14(4), 9994-10003.AbstractArticlePDF

    Sugar cane bagasse was delignified in a two-step process with peracetic acid and alkali. Peracetic acid pre-treatment with concentration of 25% based on oven-dry fiber at 60 min, with a liquor to wood (L/W) ratio of 9:1 and a temperature of 50 °C improved the second stage delignification, compared with soda pulping. The second stage was carried out at three levels of temperatures, times, and 20% sodium hydroxide based on oven-dry fiber. Soda pulping at 165 °C, 120 min, 20% sodium hydroxide based on oven-dry fiber, and L/W 10:1 was selected to compare with two-step delignification. The two-step delignification reduces the severity of pulping conditions, including temperature and pressure, and subsequent imposes less risks compared with the soda pulping at 165 °C. The advantages of this method are high delignification and reduction of kappa number with respect to lower temperature and pressure compared with soda pulping. The total time in two-step was increased from soda pulping. Two optimum conditions for alkali step were obtained at 120 °C and 140 °C and 90 min for pretreated bagasse pulping, and similar properties were achieved with soda pulping at 165 °C and 120 min. The yield of fibers, Kappa number, and data analysis using Duncan method were measured and recorded.

  • Researchpp 10004-10013Korčok, M., Koleda, P., Barcík, Š., Očkajová, A., and Kučerka, M. (2019). "Effect of technological and material parameters on final surface quality of machining when milling thermally treated spruce wood," BioRes. 14(4), 10004-10013.AbstractArticlePDF

    A verification experiment was performed to monitor the impact of technical, technological, material, and tool factors on the roughness of the milled surface (average roughness Ra) during plane milling of thermally treated spruce wood. The technological parameters were: four heat treatment temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C; one sample kept in its natural state), three feed rates (6 m·min-1, 10 m·min-1, and 15 m·min-1), three cutting speeds (20 m·s-1, 40 m·s-1, and 60 m·s-1), three tool rake angles (15°, 20°, and 30°), and three types of used blades (HSS 18% W with AlTiCrN coating, tool steel knife 19 573 induction hardened, and steel knife MAXIMUM SPECIAL 55). The result of the experiments showed the individual effects of the parameters in the following order: used knife, heat treatment, angular geometry, cutting speed, and feed rate.

  • Researchpp 10014-10046Salwa, H. N., Sapuan, S. M., Mastura, M. T., and Zuhri, M. Y. M. (2019). "Analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based materials selection system for natural fiber as reinforcement in biopolymer composites for food packaging," BioRes. 14(4), 10014-10046.AbstractArticlePDF

    The biodegradability of a material has been an important measure in packaging design. Green biocomposites, which are made of natural fiber and biopolymer matrix, are promising alternative materials in single-use packaging to replace conventional materials. Selection of the most suitable natural fiber for reinforcement in green biocomposites is an initial attempt towards reducing resources depletion and packaging waste dumping. A selection system of analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based method is proposed. Food packaging materials’ requirements and production factors are the basis of selecting 13 vital characteristics of natural fibers as the selection criteria. Nine natural fibers were assessed based on data gathered from recent literature. From the results, ijuk obtained the highest priority score (14%). Whilst, sisal had the lowest rank with a score of 8.8%. Sensitivity analysis was then performed to further validate the results, and ijuk remained at the top rank in four out of the six scenarios tested. It was concluded that ijuk is the most suitable natural fiber for reinforcement in green biocomposites for food packaging design. Nonetheless, for future development, more comprehensive selection criteria, such as fiber specific properties, fiber processing, and fibre treatment, are suggested to be included in the framework for more comprehensive results.

  • Reviewpp 10047-10092Gowman, A. C., Picard, M. C., Lim, L.-T., Misra, M., and Mohanty, A. K. (2019). "Fruit waste valorization for biodegradable biocomposite applications: A review," BioRes. 14(4), 10047-10092.AbstractArticlePDF

    Currently, food waste is a major concern for companies, governments, and consumers. One of the largest sources of food waste occurs during industrial processing, where substantial by-products are generated. Fruit processing creates a lot of these by-products, from undesirable or “ugly fruit,” to the skins, seeds, and fleshy parts of the fruits. These by-products compose up to 30% of the initial mass of fruit processed. Millions of tons of fruit wastes are generated globally from spoilage and industrial by-products, so it is essential to find alternative uses for fruit wastes to increase their value. This goal can be accomplished by processing fruit waste into fillers and incorporating them into polymeric materials. This review summarizes recent developments in technologies to incorporate fruit wastes from sources such as grape, apple, olive, banana, coconut, pineapple, and others into polymer matrices to create green composites or films. Various surface treatments of biofillers/fibers are also discussed; these treatments increase the adhesion and applicability of the fillers with various bioplastics. Lastly, a comprehensive review of sustainable and biodegradable biocomposites is presented.

  • Reviewpp 10093-10160Gomez-Maldonado, D., Vega Erramuspe, I. B., and Peresin, M. S. (2019). "Natural polymers as alternative adsorbents and treatment agents for water remediation," BioRes. 14(4), 10093-10160.AbstractArticlePDF

    This review examines the roles of different natural polymers, composites, and nanoengineered materials that have been studied in the last 10 years for their use in water treatment. As water quality is a global concern, the use of natural and sustainable materials is fundamental to obtain high value products that can remediate water systems without generating other pollution sources or require extra energy inputs or high side costs. Filtration systems often can provide an ideal alternative to conventional water treatment. Herein the attention is focused on polysaccharides, as these can be easily obtained from green processes and can be sourced from what nowadays are considered as agricultural waste. The inherent variety of functional groups that they have provides a better interaction with certain types of pollutants. Thus, biomaterials have been harnessed to generate filtration systems and other water treatment options.

  • Reviewpp 10161-10184Treu, A., Zimmer, K., Brischke, C., Larnoy, E., Gobakken, L. R., Aloui, F., Cragg, S. M., Flæte, P.-O., Humar, M., Westin, M., Borges, L., and Williams, J. (2019). "Durability and protection of timber structures in marine environments in Europe: An overview," BioRes. 14(4). 10161-10184.AbstractArticlePDF

    Timber structures in marine applications are often exposed to severe degradation conditions caused by mechanical loads and wood-degrading organisms. This paper presents the use of timber in marine environments in Europe from a wood protection perspective. It discusses the use of wood in coastline protection and archeological marine wood, reviews the marine borer taxa in European waters, and gives an overview of potential solutions for protection of timber in marine environments. Information was compiled from the most relevant literature sources with an emphasis on new wood protection methods; the need for research and potential solutions are discussed. Traditionally, timber has been extensively utilized in a variety of marine applications. Although there is a strong need for developing new protection systems for timber in marine applications, the research in this field has been scarce for many years. New attempts to protect timber used in marine environments in Europe have mainly focused on wood modification and the use of mechanical barriers to prevent colonization of marine wood borers. The importance of understanding the mechanisms of settlement, migration, boring, and digestion of the degrading organisms is key for developing effective systems for protecting timber in marine environments.