NC State
  • Reviewpp 4523-4543Zhang, J., Yang, J., Zhang, H., Zhang, Z., and Zhang, Y. (2021). "Research status and future development of biomass liquid fuels," BioResources 16(2), 4523-4543.AbstractArticlePDF

    Due to the combined pressures of energy shortage and environmental degradation, bio-liquid fuels have been widely studied as a green, environmentally friendly, renewable petroleum alternative. This article summarizes the various technologies of three generations of biomass feedstocks (especially the second-generation, biomass lignin, and the third-generation, algae raw materials) used to convert liquid fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio-jet fuel) and analyzes their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, this article details the latest research progress in biomass liquid fuel production, summarizes the list of raw materials, products and conversion processes, and provides personal opinions on its future development. The aim is to provide a theoretical basis and reference for the optimization of existing technology and future research and development of biomass liquid fuels.

  • Reviewpp 4544-4605Hubbe, M. A. (2021). "Contributions of polyelectrolyte complexes and ionic bonding to performance of barrier films for packaging: A review," BioResources, 16(2), 4544-4605.AbstractArticlePDF

    Barrier films that are used on packages play an important role, especially in the protection of food products. Research is being carried out at an accelerating pace to replace petroleum-based plastic films, which do not biodegrade and are difficult to recycle. This review article considers publications related to the use of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) in barrier films as a strategy to decrease the permeation of oxygen and other substances into and out from packages. Research progress has been achieved in using combinations of positively and negatively charged polymers, sometimes together with platy mineral particles, as a way to restrict diffusion through packaging materials. In principle, the ionic bonds within PECs contribute to a relatively high cohesive energy density within such a barrier film, which can resist diffusion of various gases and greasy substances. Resistance to water vapor, as well as aqueous substances, represent important challenges for barrier concepts that depend on ionic bond contributions. Factors affecting barrier performance of PEC-based films are discussed in light of research findings.

  • Reviewpp 4606-4648Emmanuel, O. U., Kuqo, A., and Mai, C. (2021). "Non-conventional mineral binder-bonded lignocellulosic composite materials: A review," BioResources, 16(2), 4606-4648.AbstractArticlePDF

    The construction industry suffers from unsustainability and contributes more than any other industrial sector to carbon emissions that lead to global warming. Increasing economic and environmental concerns related to conventional energy- and CO2-intensive building materials have propelled the rapid and sustained expansion of research in the area of plant-based inorganic mineral binder-bonded materials for the construction industry. The resulting composites can be qualified as eco-responsible, sustainable, and efficient multifunctional building materials. So far, most of these research efforts have not received as much attention as materials based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC). To address this gap, this review focuses on mineral binder-based lignocellulosic composites made from non-conventional inorganic mineral binders/ cements with low embodied energy and low carbon footprint, namely hydrated lime-based binders, magnesium-based cement, alkali-activated cement, and geopolymers, as sustainable alternatives to OPC-bonded lignocellulosic composites (state-of-the-art). The emphasis here is on the application potentials, the influence of production parameters on the material properties/ performance, and recent advancement in this field. Finally, a prediction is provided of future trends for these non-conventional mineral binder-bonded lignocellulosic composites.

  • Reviewpp 4649-4662Shafiq, M. D., and Ismail, H. (2021). "Multifunctional rubber seed biomass usage in polymer technology and engineering: A short review," BioResources 16(2), 4649-4662.AbstractArticlePDF

    Hevea brasiliensis is the most relevant source of natural rubber-based products in the world, and it is mostly found in Southeast Asia. This species is highly functional because its seeds can be utilized as a starting material for many essential applications related to polymer engineering and technology. The main practical compositions are its shell and kernel. The importance of each composition is varied based on the content of each structure. The kernel is predominantly composed of oil, where the oil can be utilized for the production of biofuel and to impart flexibility in many polymer-based composites. Furthermore, the carbon and lignocellulosic contents are heavily represented in the shell of the rubber seed, making the shell useful as a natural resource for carbon-derived applications.