NC State
  • Researchpp 7300-7336Ren, H., Wang, L., Li, M., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Li, X., Zheng, Y., and Li, J. (2021). "Investigation of co-ensiling for the storage of grain stillage and Jerusalem artichoke residue from inulin extraction," BioResources 16(4), 7300-7336.AbstractPDF

    Jerusalem artichoke residue (JR) was co-ensiled with grain stillage (GS) at various weight mixing ratios (JR only, 4 to 1, 2 to 1, 1.2 to 1, 1 to 1.5, 1 to 2.7, 1 to 7, and GS only) for 10, 30, and 60 d for agricultural biomass storage. Results showed that the middle level of GS to JR ratios, e.g., 1.2 to 1 and 1 to 1.5, achieved the best co-ensiling performance among all studied ratios. The water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents were significantly higher than those of the other treatments (p < 0.05), and the lignocellulose contents were significantly lower than those of other treatments (p < 0.05). The silages ensiled at the above-mentioned ratios had a higher feed value and biodegradation potential than other ratios. Lactobacillus was the dominant bacterial species during the ensiling process, and its relative abundance was significantly correlated with the content of different components, e.g., WSC, crude protein, and starch, as well as fermentation characteristics. Fungal species, e.g., Kluyveromyces and Monascus were also observed, and the relative abundance of which was positively correlated with different nutritional components. In conclusion, GS and JR can be successfully stored via co-ensiling.

  • Researchpp 7337-7354An, Q., Liu, Z.-Y., Wang, C.-R., Yang, J., Chen, S.-Y., Chen, X., Zhang, Y.-J., Bian, L., and Han, M.-L. (2021). "Laccase activity from Pleurotus ostreatus and Flammulina velutipes strains grown on agro- and forestry residues by solid-state fermentation," BioResources 16(4), 7337-7354.AbstractPDF

    Laccase activity from Pleurotus ostreatus and Flammulina velutipes strains was investigated with various agro- and forestry residues by solid-state fermentation. Different species or strains belonging to the same species had the unique capacity of secreting laccase on solid-state fermentation with various agro- and forestry residues. Overall, the capacity of secreting laccase for P. ostreatus strains was superior to F. velutipes strains due to the value of maximum activity on various agro- and forestry residues, except on the stalk of straw. Compared with Populus beijingensis, corncob, and stalk of straw, the presence of cottonseed hull was helpful to improve laccase activity for P. ostreatus strains because the maximum laccase activity from cottonseed hull was higher than that from the other three agro- and forestry residues. The presence of stalk of straw was more helpful to improve laccase activity for F. velutipes strains because of the maximum laccase activity from stalk of straw was higher that from Populus beijingensis, corncob, and cottonseed hull. These results indicated the importance of selecting suitable agro- and forestry residues for fungi producing laccase. These findings contributed to the selection of suitable strains to obtain an integrated application of low-cost laccase in the factory.

  • Researchpp 7355-7366Ayrilmis, N., Akkuş, M., and Yılmaz, S. N. (2021). "Effect of thermal modification on the surface quality of a coating applied to wood via the electrostatic spray deposition technique," BioResources 16(4), 7355-7366.AbstractPDF

    The surface properties of thermally modified ash wood with a powder coating were investigated, and the results were compared to the unmodified wood. The wood specimens were sanded with 80 grit sandpaper and then pre-heated at 80 °C for 5 min in an infrared oven. The surface of the unmodified and the modified wood specimens were coated with an epoxy/polyester (1 to 1 ratio) hybrid coating using an electrostatic corona spray gun at the pilot plant established in the laboratory. The coatings on the wood specimens were cured at different curing conditions in an infrared oven, i.e., 120 °C/15 min, 140 °C/10 min, and 160 °C/10 min. The results showed that the thermal modification (TM) of the wood caused a slight decrease in the mechanical performance of the surface system (wood substrate and coating film). For example, the scratch and abrasion resistance of the unmodified specimens at the curing temperature of 120 °C were 3.33 N and 135 revolutions but were 3.12 N and 120 revolutions after the TM. However, the average surface roughness (1.26 mu) and contact angle (60.8°) of the distilled water on the cured coatings on the modified wood were lower than those on the unmodified wood (1.86 mu and 80.8°, respectively).

  • Researchpp 7367-7378Ouyang, H., Li, S., Peng, W., Xiao, Z., and Zhang, Y. (2021). "Optimization protocol and bioactivity assessment for the microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver seed meal using response surface methodology," BioResources 16(4), 7367-7378.AbstractPDF

    Response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver seed meal. In addition, the optimal processing conditions for the extraction of E. ulmoides seed meal flavonoids were as follows: a processing time of 30 min, a liquid to solid ratio of 54 to 1 (mL/g), an ethanol concentration of 77%, and a temperature of 69 °C. The total flavonoids extraction percentage was 0.6611%. Moreover, the total flavonoids extracted from E. ulmoides seed meal were good for scavenging diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl. The E. ulmoides seed meal total flavonoids exhibited an obvious dose-dependent inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase in the concentration range of 0.05 to 1.0 mg·mL−1. The IC50 value of the E. ulmoides seed meal flavonoids was slightly lower than the IC50 value of acarbose. According to the results of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity test, the IC50 value of the E. ulmoides seed meal flavonoids was higher than the IC50 value of allopurinol.

  • Researchpp 7379-7399Mosa, W. F. A., Sas-Paszt, L., Górnik, K., Ali, H. M., and Salem, M. Z. M. (2021). "Vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. ‘Maamoura’ as affected by some biostimulants," BioResources 16(4), 7379-7399.AbstractPDF

    The present study was performed during two successive seasons 2019 and 2020 to investigate the effect of the soil application of fulvic acid (FA), seaweed extract (SE), and their different combinations on vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality of six-years-old guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. ‘Maamoura’. The trees were planted 4 × 4 m2 apart in clay soil under a flood irrigation system. They were treated three times starting from mid-March with one-month intervals with the following treatments: Control (water only), 3 and 4 g/L FA, 3 and 4 g/L SE, and their different combinations; 3 g/L FA + 3 g/L SE, 3 g/L FA + 4 g/L SE, 4 g/L FA + 3 g/L SE, and 4 g/L FA + 4 g/L SE. The results clearly showed that the application of FA or SE solely or in combinations increased shoot length and diameter, as well as leaf chlorophyll compared with the control. The treatments also increased fruit set percentage, fruit yield, and fruit physical and chemical characteristics such as fruit weight, size, TSS%, total reduced and non-reduced sugars, as well as leaf mineral content, while they decreased the fruit acidity compared with the control in the two seasons.

  • Researchpp 7400-7415Cheng, L., Di, Y., Zhao, P., Dai, J., Yang, Z., and Chang, Y. (2021). "Effects of accelerated weathering test on the properties of larch wood," BioResources 16(4), 7400-7415.AbstractPDF

    To investigate the changes of larch wood properties under the influence of long-standing exposure to the environment, the QUV accelerated weathering tester (fluorescent UV and condensation testers) was used to accelerate the weathering of wood within a given preset time, and the changes were studied by analogue simulation. The wood color changed noticeably under different weathering time, and it gradually darkened from light yellow to deep reddish brown. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis revealed that as the weathering time increased, the cell wall was broken, the pits were cracked, and the tracheids were damaged. The results of the energy spectrum analysis (O/C (oxygen/carbon)) showed an increasing trend in the ratio, indicating that the wood underwent an oxidation reaction induced by light. From the values of the two testing indexes and their change patterns with weathering time, the same trend was observed, with the values of modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending being greater than that in dynamic bending Ed (the dynamic modulus of elasticity). However, the variability of MOE was greater than that of Ed. A comparative analysis of the two detection indicators was performed. The relationship between the proposed combined correction Ed and weathering time was: y = 0.0000001017 t2 – 0.0006 t + 9.77.

  • Reviewpp ###-###Zhang, Z., Fan, Z., Zhang, G., Qin, L., and Fang, J. (2021). "Application progress of microbial immobilization technology based on biomass materials," BioResources 16(4). Page numbers to be added.AbstractPDF

    In recent years, microbial degradation technology has shown broad potential in the fields of agriculture, industry, and environmental protection. However, in practical applications the technology still encounters many problems, such as low bacterial survivability during dynamic operations, the need to remove bacterial liquid, and low tolerance in high-toxic environments, among other issues. Immobilization technology has been developed to overcome such limitations. Microbial strains have been prepared for a specific range of activities utilizing self-fixation or exosome fixation. Immobilization can significantly improve strain density, toxicity tolerance, and bacterial liquid removal. This review first presents the advantages and disadvantages of the current microbial immobilization technologies and then summarizes the properties and characteristics of various carrier materials. The review focuses on how biomass-derived materials have been used as the carriers in new microbial immobilization technologies. The excellent biocompatibility, unique physical structure, and diversified modification methods of biomass-derived materials have shown excellent prospects in the field of microbial immobilization. Finally, microbial immobilization technologies’ potential applications in agriculture, industry, and environmental applications are considered.