NC State
  • Researchpp 1359-1370Jahan, M. S., Rawsan, S., Chowdhury, D. A. N., and Al-Maruf, A. (2008). "Alternative pulping process for producing dissolving pulp from jute,"BioRes. 3(4), 1359-1370.AbstractPDF
    Dissolving pulps are the raw materials of cellulose derivatives and of many other cellulosic products. Jute is a very good source of cellulose and worthy of consideration for the production of dissolving pulp. In this investigation jute fiber, jute cuttings, and jute caddis were used as raw materials to prepare dissolving pulp by a formic acid process. A very high bleached pulp yield (49 to 59%) was obtained in this process. The alpha-cellulose content was 93 to 98%, with a high pulp viscosity. Also a good brightness (81 to 87%) was achieved in totally chlorine free bleaching. Jute fiber showed the best and jute caddis showed lowest performance in producing dissolving pulp via the formic acid process. R18-R10 values were much lower than for conventional dissolving pulp.
  • Researchpp 1371-1376Malutan, T., Nicu, R., and Popa, V. I. (2008). "Lignin modification by epoxidation," BioRes. 3(4), 1371-1376.AbstractPDF
    The chemical modification of lignin through hydroxymethylation and epoxidation is a way to develop new application fields and improvement of lignin performances. In this paper the influence of reaction conditions was studied using different samples of unmodified and modified lignins from annual plants (Wheat straw and Sarkanda grass). The progress of reactions was monitored by evaluating the epoxy index. The resulting products were characterized by FTIR-spectra, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry analysis. The products obtained were tested to be used in composite formulation for wood applications.
  • Reviewpp 1377-1402Dhiman, S. S., Sharma, J., and Battan, B. (2008). "Industrial applications and future prospects of microbial xylanases: A review," BioRes. 3(4), 1377-1402.AbstractPDF
    Microbial enzymes such as xylanases enable new technologies for industrial processes. Xylanases (xylanolytic enzyme) hydrolyze complex polysaccharides like xylan. Research during the past few decades has been dedicated to enhanced production, purification, and characterization of microbial xylanase. But for commercial applications detailed knowledge of regulatory mechanisms governing enzyme production and functioning should be required. Since application of xylanase in the commercial sector is widening, an understanding of its nature and properties for efficient and effective usage becomes crucial. Study of synergistic action of multiple forms and mechanism of action of xylanase makes it possible to use it for bio-bleaching of kraft pulp and for desizing and bio-scouring of fabrics. Results revealed that enzymatic treatment leads to the enhancement in various physical properties of the fabric and paper. This review will be helpful in determining the factors affecting xylanase production and its potential industrial applications in textile, paper, pulp, and other industries.
  • Reviewpp 1403-1418Ioelovich, M. (2008). "Cellulose as a nanostructured polymer: A short review," BioRes. 3(4), 1403-1418.AbstractPDF
    Cellulose has a complex, multi-level supermolecular architecture. This natural polymer is built from superfine fibrils having diameters in the nano scale, and each such nanofibril contains ordered nanocrystallites and low-ordered nano-domains. In this review, the nano-structure of cellulose and its influence on various properties of the polymer is discussed. In particular, the ability of nano-scale crystallites to undergo lateral co-crystallization and aggregation, as well as to undergo phase transformation through dissolution, alkalization, and chemical modification of cellulose has been the subject of investigation. The recent investigations pave the way for development of highly reactive cellulosic materials. Methods for preparation nanofibrillated cellulose and free nano-particles are described. Some application areas of the nanostruc-tured and nano-cellulose are discussed.
  • Reviewpp 1419-1491Hubbe, M. A., and Rojas, O. J. (2008). "Colloidal stability and aggregation of lignocellulosic materials in aqueous suspension: A review," BioRes. 3(4), 1419-1491.AbstractPDF
    Aqueous dispersions of lignocellulosic materials are used in such fields as papermaking, pharmaceuticals, and preparation of cellulose-based composites. The present review article considers published literature dealing with the ability of cellulosic particle dispersions (fiber, fines, nanorods, etc.) to either remain well dispersed or to agglomerate in response to changes in the composition of the supporting electrolyte solution. In many respects, the colloidal stability and coagulation of lignocellulosics can be understood in terms of well-known concepts, including effects due to osmotic pressure arising from overlapping electrostatic double layers at the charged surfaces. Details of the morphology and surface properties of lignocellulosic materials give rise to a variety of colloidal behaviors that make them unique. Adjustments in aqueous conditions, including the pH, salt ions (type and valence), polymers (charged or uncharged), and surfactants can be used to control the dispersion stability of cellulose, lignin, or wood-extractive materials to serve a variety of applications.