NC State
  • Researchpp 758-769Pan, M., Zhou, D., Ding, T., and Zhou, X. (2010). "Water resistance and some mechanical properties of rice straw fiberboards affected by thermal modification," BioRes. 5(2), 758-769.AbstractPDF
    Rice straw fiberboard was made using 12 wt % urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin as binder and 1.0 wt % polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) and 1.2 wt % wax emulsion as water retardants. The prepared fiberboards were heat-treated at 120, 150, 185, and 210°C in the presence of steam in a high-temperature dry kiln, respectively for 90 min. The effect of water retardants and heat treatment on the water resistant and some mechanical properties of the fiberboards were investigated. It was found that the water resistance of the rice straw fiberboard could not be improved by adding wax emulsion. The use of pMDI to the system significantly increased the interfacial strength and reduced 24-h thickness swelling (TS) compared to the boards with or without wax emulsion. After heat treatment, the TS was significantly decreased due to the decrease in the free reactive hydroxyl group content of rice straw fiber. Some mechanical properties of the fiberboards, such as the internal bonding strength, modulus of elasticity, and modulus of rapture were dramatically reduced with increasing temperature from 120°C to 210°C.
  • Researchpp 770-779Landry, V., Blanchet, P., and Vaillancourt, É. (2010). "Reducing VOC emissions in the furniture and cabinets industries: An opportunity for hybrid coating systems," BioRes. 5(2), 770-779.AbstractPDF
    Three hybrid systems were compared to a solvent-based low-VOC system. The goal of the project was to determine if the hybrid systems met the requirements of the kitchen cabinet and furniture industries. Adhesion of each system to the substrate was first evaluated, and significant differences were recorded. Subsequently, resistance to heat and moisture was evaluated using hot box and hot and cold check tests. These tests indicated that the experimental systems generally performed relatively well in terms of thermal resistance, but the appearance of those prepared from solvent-borne sealers and lacquers were less stable. The chemical resistance of these systems was also studied. The ability of the finish to withstand the effects of substances typically found in a kitchen was tested, as was their resistance to detergents and water. All the systems performed very well in vertical testing. Volatile organic compound emissions were finally measured after conditioning times of 3 and 21 days. These tests showed that the different systems behaved quite differently. The systems prepared with solvent-borne sealers and lacquers produced a high level of VOCs at the beginning of the test, with a rapid decrease thereafter, while the opposite was observed in systems based on water-borne sealers and lacquers.
  • Researchpp 780-795Zhang, Y., Cao, C.-Y., Hou, Q.-X., Feng, W.-Y., Xu, M., Su, Z.-H., Lin, Q.-Y., Zhuang, J.-F., and Lv, W.-J. (2010). "Using a membrane filtration process to concentrate the effluent from alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping plants," BioRes. 5(2), 780-795.AbstractPDF
    Using a multi-effect evaporation system to concentrate the effluent from alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) plants is known to require a high energy consumption. In order to improve the situation, a polyethersulfone membrane was used to concentrate the effluent of APMP plants beforehand. An orthogonal experimental design was applied and a mathematical model was established to optimize the filtration parameters. An estimation of potential energy and water savings from this new concentration process was developed. The optimal filtration conditions obtained were: molecular weight cut-off at 10,000 Dalton, trans-membrane pressure at 3 bar, feed temperature at 50oC, cross-flow velocity at 420 rpm, and volume reduction factor at 0.93. The average permeate flux under these conditions was 45.31 l/m2.h. The total solids content was increased from 14.74 g/l in the feed to 95.04 g/l in the concentrate. The permeate had low total solid contents of 8.75 g/l, Chemical Oxygen Demand of 6696 mg/l, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand of 4383 mg/l. Such qualities would allow the permeate to be reused in the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process. With this new concentration process, about 4840.6 kwh energy can be saved and 23.3 m3 effluent discharge can be reduced for each ton of pulp produced.
  • Researchpp 796-807Sandquist, D., Filonova, L., von Schantz, L., Ohlin, M., and Daniel, G. (2009). "Microdistribution of xyloglucan in differentiating poplar cells," BioRes. 5(2), 796-807AbstractPDF
    Recent studies on the ultrastructure and composition of the gelatinous layer (g-layer) in poplar have reported findings of xyloglucan. Using correlated fluorescence, scanning- and transmission electron micros-copy, we found evidence for xyloglucan present in and surrounding the g-layer, using the fucosylated xyloglucan specific CCRC-M1 antibody and the carbohydrate binding module FXG-14b. However, labeling of isolated gelatinous layer remained negative.
  • Researchpp 808-826Mustajoki, S., Leponiemi, A., and Dahl, O. (2010). "Alkaline peroxide bleaching of hot water treated wheat straw," BioRes. 5(2), 808-826.AbstractPDF
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities for chemical consumption reduction in P-P-Paa-P bleaching (P alkaline peroxide stage, Paa peracetic stage) of hot water treated straw and the effect of the wheat straw variability on the process. Papermaking fibre production from wheat straw using such a process could be implemented on a small scale if chemical consumption was low enough to eliminate the need for chemical recovery. The pulp properties obtained with this process are equal to or even superior to the properties of wheat straw soda pulp. The possibility of enhancing the first peroxide stage with oxygen and pressure was studied. The possibility for substitution of sodium hydroxide partially with sodium carbonate was also investigated. The objective was to achieve International Standardization Organization (ISO) brightness of 75%, with minimal sodium hydroxide consumption, whilst maintaining the pulp properties. The optimization of the peroxide bleaching is challenging if the final brightness target cannot be reduced. Results indicate that up to 25% of the sodium hydroxide could be substituted with sodium carbonate without losing brightness or affecting pulp properties. Another possibility is a mild alkali treatment between the hot water treatment and the bleaching sequence.
  • Researchpp 827-837Lou, R., Wu, S.-B., and Lv, G.-J. (2010). "Fast pyrolysis of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin from moso bamboo," BioRes. 5(2), 827-837.AbstractPDF
    The characteristics of enzymatic/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from moso bamboo were investigated using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis temperature as a factor on products was studied, and the pyrolysis mechanism was inferred with respect to the dominating products. Research results showed that pyrolysis products derived from EMAL pyrolysis were mainly heterocyclic (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran), phenols, esters, and a minor amount of acetic acid. Pyrolysis temperature had a distinct impact on yields of pyrolysis products. As pyrolysis temperature increased, the yield of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran rapidly decreased; however, yields of phenols increased smoothly. It can be obtained that, at the low temperatures (250-400oC), pyrolysis products were mainly 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, and the highest yield was 66.26% at 320oC; at the high temperatures (400-800oC), pyrolysis products were mainly phenols, and yields hit their highest level of 56.43% at 600 oC. A minor amount of acetic acid only emerged at 800°C. Knowledge of pyrolysis products releasing from EMAL and the pyrolysis mechanism could be basic and essential to the understanding of thermochemical conversion of EMAL to chemicals or high-grade energy.
  • Researchpp 838-853Prasad, A. G. D., and Abdullah, M. A. (2010). "Biosorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater using the fruit shell of gulmohar (Delonix regia): Application to electroplating wastewater," BioRes. 5(2), 838-853.AbstractPDF
    The biosorption of Cr(VI) from synthetic solutions and electroplating wastewater using the fruit shell of gulmohar has been investigated in a batch system. The effects of various parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of Cr(VI) on the biosorption process were studied. The complete removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH < 3.0. Studies indicated that both biosorption and bioreduction were involved in the removal of Cr(VI). The sorption equilibrium exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum biosorption capacity of fruit shell of gulmohar to remove Cr(VI) was 12.28 mg/g. A kinetic model of pseudo-second order provided a good description of the experimental data as compared to a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The sorption rate was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of Cr(VI) and biomaterials dosage. The study showed that the abundant and inexpensive fruit shell of gulmohar biosorbent has a potential application in the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater and its conversion into less or non-toxic Cr (III).
  • Researchpp 854-869Rahman, M. R., Islam, M. N., Huque, M. M., Hamdan, S., and Ahmed, A. S. (2010). "Effect of chemical treatment on rice husk (RH) reinforced polyethylene (PE) composites," BioRes. 5(2), 854-869.AbstractPDF
    In this study rice husk reinforced polyethylene composites and their test specimens were manufactured using a single screw extruder and an injection molding machine, respectively. Raw rice husk was chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt in alkali, acidic, and neutral media, in order to improve in the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites prepared from alkaline media treated rice husk were found to increase substantially compared to those of acidic media, neutral media, and untreated ones. However, the values for the alkaline media treated rice husk-PE composites at all mixing ratios were found to be higher than those of treated acidic media, treated neutral media, and untreated rice husk composites respectively. The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between the treated filler and the matrix has significantly improved, suggesting that better dispersion of the filler into the matrix was achieved upon treatment of rice husk. Based on filler loading, 35% filler reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties among all composites manufactured.
  • Researchpp 870-880Jahan, M. S., Ni, Y., and He, Z. (2010). "Chlorine dioxide bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp to a very high brightness," BioRes. 5(2), 870-880.AbstractPDF
    Bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was studied to reach a target brightness of above 88% for the purpose of using less bleaching chemicals. The performance of either chlorine dioxide or peroxide in the final bleaching to boost brightness was also studied. The experimental results revealed that the final brightness depended on ClO2 charge in the Do and D1 stages. The brightness reversion was lower when the final stage brightening was done by peroxide. The use of Mg(OH)2 in the D1 and D2 stages improved the final brightness due to the formation of less chlorate and chlorite during the Mg(OH)2- based ClO2 brightening stages. The strength properties of pulp bleached by peroxide in the final stage was slightly better than that from ClO2 as the final ClO2 bleaching stage.
  • Researchpp 881-898Barros, D. P., Silva, V. L., Hämäläinen, H., and Colodette, J. L. (2010). "Effect of last stage bleaching with peracetic acid on brightness development and properties of eucalyptus pulp," BioRes. 5(2), 881-898.AbstractPDF
    Investigation of last stage bleaching with peracetic acid is the main subject of this paper. Proper conditions were established to apply peracetic acid as the last bleaching stage of the D(Ep)D/Paa, DHT(Ep)D/Paa, A/D(Ep)D/Paa, DHT/Q(PO)Paa and Z/ED/Paa sequences. In addition, the impact of last stage bleaching with Paa on pulp refinability and strength properties was determined. Peracetic acid was consumed relatively fast when applied as the last stage of ECF bleaching sequences. A reaction time of 120 min at 75 oC and pH 5.0 is seemingly adequate regardless of the Paa dose, in the range of 1-5 kg/odt pulp and bleaching sequence. The optimum dose of Paa depends upon the sequence under investigation. In general the Paa application as last bleaching stage caused slight decrease in pulp viscosity, kappa number and HexA content but had no significant effect on pulp reversion and L*a*b* coordinates. The refinability and bonding strength properties of the pulps bleached with the sequences DHT(Ep)DD and DHT(Ep)D/Paa were quite similar when the pH of the last bleaching stage of both sequences were near 5. These properties improved slightly when Paa bleaching pH was raised to 8.5.