NC State
  • Researchpp 2535-2546Rodriguez, M., Rodrigues, A., Bayer R., J., Vilaseca, F., Girones, J., and Mutje, P. (2010). "Determination of corn stalk fibers' strength through modeling of the mechanical properties of its composites," BioRes. 5(4), 2535-2546.AbstractPDF
    Worldwide cultivation of corn is expanding, due in part to the increasing production of bioethanol. In consequence, huge amounts of corn stalks residues are been produced. Instead of incineration, we transformed the corn stalks into a semichemical pulp and successfully applied it as reinforcement in polypropylene composites. PP composites reinforced with 40% wt corn stalk single fibers were prepared, and their mechanical properties were evaluated. Through mechanical properties modeling of the composites, the intrinsic tensile strength of the cellulosic fibers that constitute the corn stalk have been determined.
  • Researchpp 2547-2555Sharma, R. K., Singh, J., and Chauhan, G. S. (2010). "Study of immobilization of protease and sorption of BSA on cellulose, cellulose derivatives, and graft copolymers," BioRes. 5(4), 2547-2555.AbstractPDF
    In order to develop novel polymeric supports based on cellulosics, cellulose extracted from pine needles, a perennial resource material available in huge quantities as waste, was graft copolymerized with vinyl monomers. Cellulose, cellulose derivatives, and their graft copolymers with highest percent grafting (Pg) were used as supports for immobilization of an industrially important protease enzyme and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) by a specific sorption method. The Manachini method was used to determine activity of the immobilized enzyme. Sorption of protein was characterized by activity of protein concentration by the Lowry method. Cellulose itself was found to be effective as a polymeric support to retain a good amount of protease and BSA, whereas cellulose derivatives were effective to adsorb BSA only. Among cellulose graft copolymers, those based on methyl methacrylate proved to be better sorbents.
  • Researchpp 2556-2566Jonoobi, M., Harun, J., Tahir, P. M., Zaini, L. H., SaifulAzry, S., and Makinejad, M. D. (2010). "Characteristics of nanofibers extracted from kenaf core," BioRes. 5(4), 2556-2566.AbstractPDF
    Cellulose nanofibers were isolated from kenaf core fibers by employing chemo-mechanical treatments. The morphologies and sizes of the fibers were explored with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of chemical analysis showed that the cellulose contents of the bleached pulp fibers and nanofibers increased from 46% to 92% and to 94%, respectively. Most of the produced nanofibers had diameters in the range of 20 to 25 nm, whereas kenaf nanofibers ranged in diameter diameters from 10 to 75 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the removal of lignin and the majority of the hemicelluloses from the kenaf core fibers. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which was carried out to evaluate the thermal properties of the fibers, demonstrated that the thermal stabilities of these fibers were increased by the chemo-mechanical treatments. The results of X-ray analysis confirmed that chemical and mechanical treatments can improve the crystallinity of fibers.
  • Researchpp 2567-2580Loureiro, P. E. G., Domingues, E. F., Evtuguin, D. V., and Carvalho, M. G., V. S. (2010). "ECF bleaching with a final hydrogen peroxide stage: Impact of the chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp," BioRes. 5(4), 2567-2580.AbstractPDF
    Two industrial elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching sequences, D0(EOP)D1(EP)D2 and OQ(PO)DP, are compared with respect to the bulk content of lignin, carboxyl, hexeneuronic acids (HexA), and reducing groups after each bleaching stage. HexA groups contribute significantly to the total content of carboxyl groups, and their degradation during chlorine dioxide bleaching is reflected by a decrease of the carboxyl content. The higher degradation using an enhanced use of oxygen-based bleaching chemicals is associated with a higher fiber charge reduction, mainly due to xylan depletion. Additionally, the effect of process variables of a laboratory final hydrogen peroxide stage on the chemical composition of the fully bleached pulp (D0(EOP)D1P and OQ(PO)DP) is studied. The ability of final peroxide bleaching to raise the content of carboxyl groups is dependent on the operating conditions and pulp bleaching history. A balance between carbohydrate oxidation and dissolution of oxidized groups determines the effect on fiber charge. The effect of hydrogen peroxide stabilizers added into the final stage on the content of carboxyl groups is also reported.
  • Researchpp 2581-2590Wu, G.-F., Lang, Q., Qu, P., Jiang, Y.-F., and Pu, J. (2010). "Effect of chemical modification and hot-press drying on poplar wood," BioRes. 5(4), 2581-2590.AbstractPDF
    Urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and hot-press drying were used to improve the properties of poplar wood. The wood was impregnated with the prepolymer using a pulse-dipping machine. The impregnated timbers were compressed and dried by a multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The drying rate was more rapid during the chemical modification and hot-press drying than conventional kiln-drying. In addition, the properties of timber were also enhanced obviously. When the compression rate was 28.6%, the basic density, oven dry density and air-dried density of modified wood improved 22%, 71%, and 70%, respectively. The bending strength and compressive strength parallel to grain increased 60% and 40%. The water uptake of treated wood was significantly decreased compared with the untreated wood. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that the intensity of hydroxyl and carbonyl absorption peaks decreased significantly, which was attributed to a reaction of the NHCH2OH of urea-formaldehyde prepolymer with the wood carboxyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups. The XRD results indicated that the degree of crystallinity increased from 35.09% to 36.91%. The morphologic models of chemical within wood were discovered by SEM.
  • Researchpp 2591-2610González, D., Campos, A. R., Cunha, A. M., Santos, V., and Parajó, J. C. (2010). "Utilization of fibers obtained by peroxyformic acid processing of broom as reinforcing agents for biocomposites," BioRes. 5(4), 2591-2610.AbstractPDF
    Broom (Cytisus scoparius) samples were processed in media containing formic acid and hydrogen peroxide (MILOX process) to obtain cellulose-enriched solids. The chemical processing of broom samples was assessed by means of a centered, second order factorial design of experiments. Empirical models derived from the experimental data gave a close interpretation of the experimental patterns, and enabled the selection of operational conditions for achieving extensive delignification and hemicellulose removal, while minimizing the dissolution of cellulose. Broom samples processed under the selected conditions were employed to reinforce PLA composites, which were characterized mechanically and by DSC, SEM, and water absorption experiments.
  • Researchpp 2611-2624Hamdan, S., Rahman, M. R., Ahmed, A. S., Talib, Z. A., and Islam, M. S. (2010). "Influence of N,N-dimethylacetamid on the thermal and mechanical properties of polymer-filled wood," BioRes. 5(4), 2611-2624.AbstractPDF
    Mercerized wood species were impregnated with N, N-dimethylacetamid. The FT-IR showed enhanced absorption at 1419 cm-1(-C-/CH3), and the 1267 cm-1 (-N-/ CH3) stretching band confirmed the polymerization reaction. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis indicated that the decomposition temperature of WPC gives a higher thermal stability compared to the raw material. WPC yielded higher MOE and MOR compared to the untreated wood. The Young’s modulus of Xylopia Spp Artocarpus Rigidus and Eugenia Spp were significantly different between raw wood and WPC. The increase in the stiffness and the thermal stability of the composites increased due to the crystallinity of WPC as indicated by XRD analysis.
  • Researchpp 2625-2639He, Z., Ni, Y., and Zhou, Y. (2010). "Presence of hardwood chips and its impact on pulp strength properties in the production of bleached softwood kraft pulp," BioRes. 5(4), 2625-2639.AbstractPDF
    The effect of hardwood admixture (15-25% birch or aspen) in kraft cooking on the strength properties of the fully bleached pulp was investigated. Results obtained from both lab- and mill-processed ECF bleached pulps showed that adding 15-25% birch or aspen to the production of fully bleached softwood kraft pulp had a minor effect on the strength properties. No significant effect was observed for the hardwood admixture on the apparent density over a wide range of breaking length. Under the conditions studied, the results showed that pulping of mixed softwood/hardwood chips (chip blending) resulted in overall better strength properties than the pulp blending at a given freeness. It was hypothesized that the softwood fibers would be cooked to a higher kappa number in the cooking of mixed softwood/hardwood chips for the same target kappa number, thus having higher fiber strength due to higher pulp viscosity and preservation of the hemicellulose. This was supported by the results from zero-span tensile strength of the long fiber fraction of the samples from chip blending and pulp blending. The implication is that some softwood kraft pulp mills can add up to 25% of hardwood chips to the kraft cooking of softwood chips without significantly affecting the overall pulp strength properties.
  • Researchpp 2640-2663Dogu, D., Tirak, K., Candan, Z., and Unsal, O. (2010). "Anatomical investigation of thermally compressed wood panels," BioRes. 5(4), 2640-2663.AbstractPDF
    Effects of temperature and press pressure on the anatomical structure of solid-wood panels produced by using Pinus sylvestris L. (Scotch pine) wood were evaluated. Solid wood panels with dimensions of 250 by 500 by 18 mm were hot-pressed using a laboratory hot press at a temperature of either 120°C or 150°C and pressure of either 5 or 7 MPa for 1 h. Microscopic investigations conducted by Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the highest deformation occurred in earlywood regions of all growth rings for each process condition and the distribution of deformation was not uniform in growth rings. Cell-wall thickness was observed to be an important factor in wood behavior during thermal compressing processes. The results showed clearly that the impact of pressure in wood structure is promoted by increased temperature. Significant densification was observed at the maximum temperature and maximum pressure condition employed in the study, and almost all earlywood layers showed cell collapse. The study revealed that a homogenous structure of growth rings with the uniform earlywood and latewood widths throughout the wood samples plays a major role in prevention of cell collapse. The results indicated that both process conditions and anatomical structure of the wood have an interaction.
  • Researchpp 2664-2680Kiuru, J., Tukiainen, P., and Tsitko, I. (2010). "Electrochemically generated biocides for controlling contamination in papermaking," BioRes. 5(4), 2664-2680.AbstractPDF
    Feasibility of electrochemically generated biocides in papermaking was evaluated in pilot scale trials. The trials indicated that electrochemically generated biocides prevent microbial growth and proliferation in broke systems, as well as in water circulations. The spoilage of broke can be delayed, and already spoiled broke can be recovered using these biocides. The improved broke quality increases the stability of the paper machine and, consequently, less broke is produced. The biocides can be added to water or pulp, and they have hardly any negative effect on the process or the end product. The presence of reducing compounds may cause limitations in the use of these oxidative biocides. It was observed that electrochemically generated biocide was also efficient against heat-resistant spores. However, the biocide was less efficient against spores as compared to vegetative cells, both aerobic and anaerobic, especially when the spore numbers were higher than 104 cfu/ml. Onsite oxidant production eliminates the transportation and storage of biocides. Moreover, due to the short time between the production and use, the degradation of the active compounds can be minimized.