Volume 8 Issue 1
- Researchpp 1283-1291Zhang, Y., Zhu, W., Lu, Y., Gao, Z., and Gu, J. (2013). "Water-resistant soybean adhesive for wood binder employing combinations of caustic degradation, nano-modification, and chemical crosslinking," BioRes. 8(1), 1283-1291.AbstractArticlePDF
In an attempt to develop a soybean-protein wood adhesive with improved water resistance and good technical applicability, soybean protein was first degraded under strong alkali conditions and then subjected to chemical crosslinking combined with nano-modification. Results of plywood evaluation, GPC analysis, and XRD determination indicated that a soybean-protein adhesive that could bear 28 h boiling-dry cycled treatment according to standard JIS K6806-2003. The water-resistance improvement was attributed to both the chemical crosslinking of the degraded soybean protein (DSP) by MDI and the nano-modification of DSP by intercalated or exfoliated montmorillonite (MMT). Caustic degradation improved the technical applicability of the DSP adhesive by sharply reducing the viscosity of high-content protein solution. MMT nano-modification can obviously prolong the pot lives of MDI-modified DSP adhesives but slightly decrease their dry bond strength.
- Researchpp 1274-1282Soltani, M., Andalib, M., and Ravanbakhsh, M. (2013). "Some physical and mechanical properties of uncatalysed acetylated paper," BioRes. 8(1), 1274-1282.AbstractArticlePDF
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of acetylation on properties of paper made using the chemi-mechanical pulp (CMP) process. Industrial unbleached CMP pulp was provided (before and after refining), and paper handsheets were made. After drying, the specimens were acetylated on a heated cylinder at 120 °C, with acetic anhydride without catalyst. Physical and mechanical properties including water absorption, porosity, printability, brightness, D-folding, breaking length, tear resistance, and burst strength of samples were measured and compared between treated samples and the controls. The results showed that acetylation intensity was increased by increasing reaction time. Water absorption exhibited a significant reduction due to acetylation. Brightness, D-folding, and burst showed an increasing trend as a function of the degree of acetylation. Tear resistance was decreased by acetylation. The refining process improved acetylation and decreased porosity. The results indicated that most of the important factors were significantly influenced and improved by both acetylation and the refining process.
- Researchpp 1292-1305Terrasan, C. R. F., Temer, B., Sarto, C., Silva Júnior, F. G., and Carmona, E. C. (2013). "Xylanase and β-xylosidase from Penicillium janczewskii: Production, physico-chemical properties, and application of the crude extract to pulp biobleaching," BioRes. 8(1), 1292-1305.AbstractArticlePDF
Extracellular xylanase and β-xylosidase production by a Penicillium janczewskii strainwere investigated in liquid cultures with xylan from oat spelts under different physical and chemical conditions. The selected conditions for optimized production of xylanase and β-xylosidase were 7 days, pH 6.5, at 30 °C and 8 days, pH 5.0, at 25 °C, respectively. The xylanase exhibited optimal activity in pH 5.0 at 50 °C and the β-xylosidase in pH 4.0 at 75 °C. The xylanase was more stable at pH 6.0 to 9.5, while the β-xylosidase remained stable at pH ranging from 1.6 to 5.5. The xylanase half-life (T50) at 40, 50, and 60 °C was 183, 15, and 3 min, respectively. β-xylosidase half-life was 144, 8, and 4 min at 50, 65, and 75 °C, respectively. When applied to the biobleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp, xylanase dosages of 2 and 4 U/g dried pulp reduced, respectively, kappa number by 3.0 and 3.3 units after 1 h treatment, demonstrating that the use of P. janczewskii xylanases in this process is quite promising. The pulp viscosity was not altered, confirming the absence of cellulolytic enzymes in the fungal extract.
- Researchpp 1306-1319Liu, Z., Cao, Y., Yao, H., and Wu, S. (2013). "Oxygen delignification of wheat straw soda pulp with anthraquinone addition," BioRes. 8(1), 1306-1319.AbstractArticlePDF
Oxygen delignification of wheat straw soda pulp with the addition of anthraquinone (AQ) was conducted to evaluate the effects of AQ on pulp quality. The pulp yield, kappa number, intrinsic viscosity, and brightness were selected as the properties to optimize oxygen delignification. The optimal pulp was obtained via grey relational analysis with an alkali charge of 3%, oxygen pressure of 0.5 MPa at 120 °C for 85 min, and with 0.05% AQ. In contrast to conventional oxygen delignification, the addition of AQ produced pulp with a higher yield, and it did not generate other negative impacts on pulp kappa number, viscosity, and brightness. The reaction mechanism of AQ in oxygen delignification was different from that in alkali pulping.
- Researchpp 1320-1331Nik Mahmud, N. A., Samsu Baharuddin, A., Bahrin, E. K., Sulaiman, A., Naim, M. N., Zakaria, R., Hassan, M. A., Nishida, H., and Shirai, Y. (2013). "Enzymatic saccharification of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) treated with superheated steam," BioRes. 8(1) 1320-1331.AbstractArticlePDF
The effectiveness of superheated steam pretreatment on the enzymatic saccharification of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was investigated by varying the temperature (140 to 210 °C) and the retention time (20 to 90 minutes). The results showed that superheated steam pretreatment at 180 °C for 60 minutes is the optimum condition for enzymatic saccharification of OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the OPMF show that superheated steam pretreatment is able to remove silica bodies. Further characterization by FTIR and TG/DTG analysis of the raw and treated OPMF indicates that the solubilization and removal of hemicelluloses took place after the pretreatment. This suggested that superheated steam pretreatment is an effective method for the alteration of the OPMF structure and enhances the digestibility of the biomass, hence improving enzymatic saccharification.
- Researchpp 1332-1344Okan, O. T., Deniz, I., and Yildirim, I. (2013). "Bleaching of bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusoides) Kraft-AQ pulp and sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPBTH) after oxygen delignification," BioRes. 8(1), 1332-1344.AbstractArticlePDF
The most prominent environmental problems facing the paper industry are those due to bleaching processes that use chlorine compounds. In this study, totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequences were applied to Phyllostachys bambusoides bamboo unbleached kraft anthraquinone (AQ) pulp, using different conditions with Oxygen (O) delignification and Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate (SPBTH) stages. The effects of oxygen pressure, SPBTH ratio, and bleaching time were studied to maximize the brightness gain at the lowest viscosity loss. Unbleached kraft-AQ bamboo pulp was applied to first stage oxygen delignification for bleaching with under 5 bar, 3% NaOH, and 12% concentration conditions. Following the chelated bleaching, Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate (SPBTH) bleaching was carried out as the final stage. The optimum bamboo kraft pulp bleaching conditions were SPBTH level: 4%, MgSO4: 0.5%, Na2SiO3: 3%, bleaching time: 80 min., reaction temperature: 70°C, and concentration: 12%. An overall increase in the physical properties of paper was evident up to an SPBTH level of 4%. When the SPBTH level and bleaching time increased, the kappa number, viscosity, opacity, and yellowness were decreased, but the brightness was increased. Oxygen delignification with chelatation and SPBTH as a bleaching sequence was shown to be a promising alternative to produce high-quality pulp from bamboo for cleaner paper.
- Researchpp 1345-1360Lou, R., Wu, S., Lv, G., and Zhang, A. (2013). "Factors related to minerals and ingredients influencing the distribution of pyrolysates derived from herbaceous biomass," BioRes. 8(1), 1345-1360.AbstractArticlePDF
Considerations related to minerals and the organic composition play a major role in biomass pyrolysis, determining the distributions and properties of pyrolysate. Thus, a correlation was developed to predict the influence of both the ingredients and minerals (additive NaCl) on the yield of pyrolysates. The feedstock was processed in a tubular reactor furnace at the temperature levels for 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C using fast pyrolysis method. The obtained pyrolysates were analyzed by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicated that the ratio of addition 1% NaCl to bamboo had the greatest impact on the ingredients of bio-oil. A higher ash content and addition of NaCl can promote more generation of CO2 and also make the char possess greater aromaticity. Therefore, de-ashing or removing minerals in the feedstock is indispensable for favorable conversion of biomass to bioenergy.
- Researchpp 1361-1373Özmen, N., Çetin, N. S., Mengeloğlu, F., and Birinci, E. (2013). "Vinyl acetate modified Scots pine reinforced HDPE composites: Influence of various levels of modification on mechanical and thermal properties," BioRes. 8(1), 1361-1373.AbstractArticlePDF
In order to compare the effect of vinyl acetate modification (VA) at different levels of weight percentage gain, Scots pine wood flour was modified with VA to three different wt% gains (10%, 16%, and 21% WPGs). Acetic anhydride (AA) modification at 24% WPG was also studied. Modified Scots pine wood flour reinforced HDPE composites (WPCs) were produced at 30 wt% wood flour loading by using extrusion-injection molding process and the mechanical properties of WPCs were determined. The thermal and morphological properties of WPG were characterised by using TGA and SEM techniques. The increase in tensile strength was significant for VA modified WPCs in comparison to the AA modified, unmodified or neat HDPE composites. Thermal stability was also significantly improved with increasing the WPG levels of VA modification.
- Researchpp 1374-1384Wang, H., Li, D., and Zhang, R. (2013). "Preparation of ultralong cellulose nanofibers and optically transparent nanopapers derived from waste corrugated paper pulp," BioRes. 8(1), 1374-1384.AbstractArticlePDF
Ultralong cellulose nanoﬁbers with extremely high aspect ratio were successfully manufactured from waste corrugated paper pulp through a series of chemical treatments combined with grinding, ultrasonication, and centrifugation. SEM images revealed that the prepared cellulose nanofibers exhibited a uniform width ranging from 30 to 100 nm and a web-like network structure. The nanopaper was produced by filtration and oven drying using the obtained cellulose nanofibrils suspension. An interesting phenomenon occurred, namely that the nanopaper formed in multilayered nanofibrous flakes, which can be seen in the SEM image of the nanopaper cross section. The nanopaper derived from waste corrugated paper presented high tensile properties, with a tensile strength of 135 MPa and a tensile modulus of 6.67 GPa, which was approximately 10 times higher than the untreated waste corrugated paper. The obtained nanopaper also exhibited high transmittance of 85.2% at 600 nm wavelength and low thermal expansion of 16.2 ppm/K. The high performance nanopaper seems to be a strong candidate for fabricating optical electronics, solar cells, and panel sensors.
- Researchpp 1385-1397Fu, K., Fu, S., Zhan, H., Zhou, P., Liu, M., and Liu, H. (2013). "A newly isolated wood-rot fungus for laccase production in submerged cultures," BioRes. 8(1), 1385-1397.AbstractArticlePDF
A wood-rot fungus was isolated and investigated for its laccase production in submerged cultures. Based on sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA genes with reference taxa, the wild-type strain HLS-2 with high laccase production was identified as Psathyrella candolleana with GenBank Accession no. HQ215597. The production of laccase by P. candolleana HLS-2 can be enhanced by adding several agricultural wastes to the medium. Among them, wheat bran had the most significant effect and the highest laccase activity of nearly 12000 U/L. Extracellular laccase formations by this fungus can also be induced by veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, 2-2’-azinobis(3-ethyl- benzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), and copper sulfate. The maximal laccase activity, approximately 23000 U/L, was obtained from the shake-flask culture containing 1 mM Cu2+ without phenolic or aromatic inducers. Laccase activity of the extracellular liquid was stable at pH 8.0 and retained over 90% activity at 4 °C after 40 days.