Volume 12 Issue 2
- Researchpp 4327-4341Pourmousa, S. (2017). "Chemical oxygen demand and turbidity improvement of deinked tissue wastewater using electrocoagulation techniques," BioRes. 12(2), 4327-4341.AbstractArticlePDF
The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of electrocoagulation technique in deinked tissue industry wastewater. The effect of two types of electrodes, three electrolysis times, four voltages, and three pHs were investigated. Experiments were conducted in batch process using a glass cell. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and turbidity improvement of wastewater were measured and evaluated through the independent and interaction effects of variables. The results revealed that both electrodes reduced the COD and turbidity. However, the ability of their performance depended on the electrolysis time, voltage, and pH. For COD, greater improvement by electrocoagulation technique was obtained with 45minute electrolysis time, 24 volts, and alkaline conditions, while the turbidity reduction was achieved at lower voltage. Analysis of the treated water showed that the maximum COD and turbidity removal efficiencies were 81.12% and 89.43%, respectively. The treated effluent was very clear, and its quality met the industrial applications. Consequently, the electrocoagulation technique can be considered a reliable and safe method for deinked tissue effluent treatments to replace the other chemical methods.
- Researchpp 4342-4351Liu, X., Wu, Z., Zhang, J., and Ge, S. (2017). "Tensile and bending properties and correlation of windmill palm fiber," BioRes. 12(2), 4342-4351.AbstractArticlePDFWidely distributed in southern China, the windmill palm tree (Trachycarpus fortunei) is an important economic tree species from which palm fiber can be stripped. Palm Fiber (PF) is divided into palm leaf sheath fiber (PLSF) and palm petioles fiber (PPF), and both have good elasticity. These fibers can be used to produce mattresses and other elastic compound materials. While PLSF and PPF shared a similar elastic modulus, the elastic limit and elastic strain of PLSF were found to be significantly higher than that of PPF. Also, PLSF had superior tensile elastic properties. Within the elastic range, the bending and tensile properties of PF were almost the same. When given force under the horizonal-straight state, PLSF displayed superior bending elastic properties.
- Researchpp 4352-4363Komesu, A., Wolf Maciel, M. R., Alves de Oliveira, R., and Maciel Filho, R. (2017). "Influence of residual sugars on the purification of lactic acid using short path evaporation," BioRes. 12(2), 4352-4363.AbstractArticlePDF
Short path evaporation (SPE) is a promising separation technique for the purification of lactic acid from fermentation broth. This study investigated the influence of residual sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and sucrose, on the purification of lactic acid using SPE. A 23 factorial experimental design was performed in the experimental range from 5 g·L-1 to 15 g·L-1 for glucose, xylose, and sucrose concentrations. Glucose and sucrose concentrations did not have significant effects on the process of lactic acid concentration in the range used for this study. Xylose in high concentration was found to reduce the lactic acid concentration process performance. An increase in the boiling temperature of the mixture by the ebullioscopy effect possibly hindered the evaporation of the mixture.
- Reviewpp 4364-4383Komesu, A., Oliveira, J. A. R. d., Martins, L. H. d. S., Wolf Maciel, M. R., and Maciel Filho, R. (2017). "Lactic acid production to purification: A review," BioRes. 12(2). 4364-4383.AbstractArticlePDF
Lactic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that can be used in a wide variety of industries, such as the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, chemical, food, and, most recently, the medical industries. It can be made by the fermentation of sugars obtained from renewable resources, which means that it is an eco-friendly product that has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy issued a report that listed lactic acid as a potential building block for the future. Bearing the importance of lactic acid in mind, this review summarizes information about lactic acid properties and applications, as well as its production and purification processes.
- Reviewpp 4384-4409Bailón-Salas, A. M., Medrano-Roldán, H., Valle-Cervantes, S., Ordaz-Díaz, L. A., Urtiz-Estrada, N., and Rojas-Contreras, J. A. (2017). "Review of molecular techniques for the identification of bacterial communities in biological effluent treatment facilities at pulp and paper mills," BioRes. 12(2), 4384-4409.AbstractArticlePDFOne of the processes most used in biotechnology today for handling industrial liquid wastes is biological wastewater treatment. The efficiency and quality of its operation depends on the composition and activity of the microbial community that is present. The application of traditional and molecular techniques has provided a glimpse into the “black box” and has given information to improve the wastewater treatment process. However, bleach pulp and paper mill effluents require a better understanding of the active bacterial population. For the study of these microorganisms, molecular techniques have been used for more than 15 years. However, there has been a lack of knowledge of the physiological requirements and relations with the environment, which seems to be very difficult to obtain involving profile on the diversity. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing technology is a promising method that makes it possible to identify the entire profile of microbial communities. In combination with fingerprint methods, this approach allows the identification and analysis of the whole biodiversity of microbial communities. In this review, several identification techniques will be discussed.
- Reviewpp 4410-4477Hubbe, M. A., Smith, R. D., Zou, X., Katuscak, S., Potthast, A., and Ahn, K. (2017). "Deacidification of acidic books and paper by means of non-aqueous dispersions of alkaline particles: A review focusing on completeness of the reaction," BioRes. 12(2), 4410-4477.AbstractArticlePDF
Deacidification refers to chemical treatments meant to slow down the acid hydrolysis and embrittlement of books and paper documents that had been printed on acidic paper. From the early 1800s up to about 1990, papermakers used aluminum sulfate, an acidic compound, in most printing papers. Certain deacidification methods use non-aqueous media to distribute alkaline mineral particles such as MgO within the pages of the treated books. Evidence is considered here as to whether or not the proximity of alkaline particles within such documents is sufficient to neutralize the acidic species present. Because much evidence suggests incomplete neutralization, a second focus concerns what to do next in cases where books already have been treated with a non-aqueous dispersion system. Based on the literature, the neutralization of acidic species within such paper can be completed by partial moistening, by high humidity and pressure, by water condensation, as well as by optional treatments to enhance paper strength and a final drying step.
- Reviewpp 4478-4489Mantanis, G. I. (2017). "Chemical modification of wood by acetylation or furfurylation: A review of the present scaled-up technologies," BioRes. 12(2), 4478-4489.AbstractArticlePDF
Significant developments in the area of wood modification have been achieved during the last three decades. These developments can be attributed to increased environmental concerns, the escalating demand for a high and constant quality of wood products, and the rising prices of the durable tropical timber as well as its very limited availability, as affected by illegal logging. As a consequence, a number of wood modification techniques such as chemical and impregnation modifications or heat treatments have been introduced, and some of these technologies have reached the industrial level. This review paper deals with two successful technologies, that is, wood acetylation and wood furfurylation. It briefly discusses the advantages of the new modified products and presents in short their improved properties. Published findings indicate that chemical modification of wood, to a full or partial degree, by means of acetylation or furfurylation, offers a way to transform low durability wood species to new ‘green’ wood materials having advanced qualities and properties.