NC State
  • Researchpp 115-130Lee, C. S., Aroua, M. K., Wan Daud, W. A., Cognet, P., Pérès, Y., and Ajeel, M. A. (2018). "Selective electroreduction of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol on a mixed carbon-black activated carbon electrode and a mixed carbon black-diamond electrode," BioRes. 13(1), 115-130.AbstractArticlePDF

    1,2-propanediol was selectively produced by electroreduction of glycerol in a two-compartment reactor. Two new kinds of cathode electrodes were evaluated: (i) mixed carbon black-activated carbon electrodes and (ii) mixed carbon black-diamond electrodes. These electrodes were compared with a conventional platinum electrode. With a reaction temperature of 80 °C, an electric current of 2.0 A, and ambient pressure, the mixed carbon black-activated carbon electrode demonstrated excellent performance and successfully reduced glycerol to 1,2-propanediol with a high selectivity of 86% and 74% glycerol conversion.  The selectivity of 1,2-propanediol on the mixed carbon black-diamond electrode and the platinum electrode was 68% and 61%, respectively, with 88% glycerol conversion on the mixed carbon black-diamond electrode and 67% glycerol conversion on the platinum electrode. The authors propose a possible reaction mechanism for the formation of 1,2-PDO.

  • Researchpp 131-146Zhou, A., Bian, Y., Shen, Y., Huang, D., and Zhou, M. (2018). "Inelastic bending performances of laminated bamboo beams: Experimental investigation and analytical study," BioRes. 13(1), 131-146.AbstractArticlePDF

    Laminated bamboo (LB) is a processed bamboo-based composite fabricated by gluing bamboo strips under controlled temperature and pressure. It has many superior mechanical properties compared to commonly used wood products and is well suited for use as a construction material. The present work consisted of two parts. The first part aimed at studying the bending performances of LB beams. The stress-strain relationship of the LB composite had approximately perfect elasticity under tension, yet exhibited more complicated behavior under compression (i.e., linearity in the prior-proportional limit and nonlinearity in the post-proportional limit). The strength in tension was significantly higher than that during compression. Damage of LB beam began with the fiber yielding in the compressive zone until failure occurred when the fibers at the outermost part of the tensile zone broke. Hence, LB beams always underwent a long nonlinear process before failure. An empirical stress-strain relationship was proposed on the basis of a bilinear model. In the second part of the study, an analytical model for calculating the load-carrying capacity and deflection of LB beams was developed. Experimental results confirmed that the model had enough accuracy for design calculation.

  • Researchpp 147-156Köse Demirel, G., Güdül, H., Temiz, A., Kuştaş, S., and Aydın, İ. (2017). "Effect of alkyl ketene dimer on the physical, mechanical, and biological durability of plywood," BioRes. 13(1), 147-156.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effect of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) on plywood properties was studied. AKD is widely used in the paper industry as a sizing agent and can esterify wood cell wall components. Two types of veneers obtained from alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata (C. A. Mey) Yalt.) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) wood logs were used. Two different treatment processes and two different concentrations (1% and 3%) of AKD were tested. The first method was AKD-dispersion, which was mixed with glue and sprayed onto veneers. The second method was dipping veneers into the AKD solutions (1% and 3%) for 25 min. Water uptake after 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h was reduced by the AKD treatment. Plywood produced from AKD impregnated veneers showed the lowest thickness swelling versus untreated plywood and plywood produced from AKD blended in glue. The AKD treatment generally reduced the mechanical properties of the plywood. However, AKD treatment considerably improved the biological resistance against brown rot fungi (Coniophera puteana BAM Ebw. 15) and white rot fungi (Trametes versicolor CTB 863A). Increased methyl/methylene and carbonyl groups of the alkyl chain were determined in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of specimens subjected to the AKD-dispersion method.

  • Researchpp 157-170Čabalová, I., Kačík, F., Lagaňa, R., Výbohová, E., Bubeníková, T., Čaňová, I., and Ďurkovič, J. (2018). "Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) wood," BioRes. 13(1), 157-170.AbstractArticlePDF

    Changes in the chemical composition and selected physico-mechanical properties of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) wood samples were assessed after thermal treatment. Heat treatment was performed at 160, 180, and 200 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. The contents of the extractives, lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, and saccharides, and the structural changes in the functional groups were determined. Changes in the colour traits, wood density, compression strength parallel to the grain, and compression modulus of elasticity were also determined. The decrease in the holocellulose content caused by the degradation of non-glucosic saccharides was observed during thermal treatment. The contents of both the extractives and lignin increased. The syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in the lignin increased because of the preferential condensation of guaiacyl units. The physical and mechanical properties of pedunculate oak wood, such as density, equilibrium moisture content, colour lightness, and yellowness, decreased as the temperature increased. The compression strength and redness varied during thermal treatment, and reached maximum values during the treatment at 180 °C. The modulus of elasticity showed non-significant differences. Three groups of heat treatment clusters were distinguished in the multivariate wood trait analysis and were clearly segregated from each other.

  • Researchpp 171-175Mitchell, P. (2018). "Calculating the equilibrium moisture content for wood based on humidity measurements," BioRes. 13(1), 171-175.AbstractArticlePDF

    If given enough time, the moisture content of wood will reach an equilibrium with its surrounding environment. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding air will establish equilibrium moisture content (EMC) conditions, and the moisture content of the wood in that environment will approach a value determined by the RH. This article introduces an Excel spreadsheet that will calculate an estimate of the EMC based on any one of the following three pairs of data: RH and dry-bulb temperature, wet-bulb temperature and dry-bulb temperature, or dew-point temperature and dry-bulb temperature.

  • Researchpp 176-191Morais, I. L. H., Silva, C. M., Zanuncio, J. C., and Zanuncio, A. J. V. (2018). "Structural stabilization of granular sludge by addition of calcium ions into aerobic bioreactors," BioRes. 13(1), 176-191.AbstractArticlePDF

    Granulation is a gradual process that makes flocculent sludge granular through the simultaneous densification and selection of aggregates via sedimentation. The damage to the granule structure over time in a bioreactor operation is one of the most severe barriers to the practical application of the process. The addition of metal ions may increase aggregation rates and granular structure stability. Four sequential batch reactors fed with pulp mill effluent were operated and monitored. Three reactors contained aerobic granular sludge and one contained flocculent sludge. One granular sludge SBR received the addition of 100 mg∙L-1 of Ca2+, the second 200 mg∙L-1 of Ca2+, and the third received no intentional addition of calcium. The fourth SBR was operated with conventional flocculent sludge. The efficiency of the organic matter removal and the effect of calcium on the morphological characteristics of the granules formed were evaluated. The removal efficiency of the COD and the BOD was similar among all SBR, i.e., 60% and 90%, respectively. The addition of calcium did not interfere with granule size. The addition of 100 mg∙L-1 of Ca2+ increased the uniformity and the mechanical strength of the granules. It also increased approximately 36% of the settling velocity of the granules.

  • Researchpp 192-207Dang, C., Yin, Y., Xu, M., and Pu, J. (2018). "Hydrophobic noncrystalline porous starch (NCPS): Dispersed silver nanoparticle suspension as an antibacterial coating for packaging paper," BioRes. 13(1), 192-207.AbstractArticlePDF

    Hydrophobic noncrystalline porous starch (NCPS) containing microporous and amorphous structures was prepared from native corn starch via heat treatment, solvent exchange, and alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) modification. Then, antibacterial packaging was produced by combining silver nanoparticles with the hydrophobic NCPS (hydrophobic NCPS/Ag) and employing this biobased coating as a layer on the base paper. The antibacterial activity, strength, and barrier properties of the hydrophobic NCPS/Ag-coated paper were measured. In addition, the fine porous surface of NCPS, the distribution of the silver nanoparticles in hydrophobic NCPS as well as the network structure of uncoated paper and coated paper were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the hydrophobicity of the corn starch, hydrophobic NCPS, uncoated paper, and coated paper were determined using water contact angles. The silver nanoparticles had a positive effect on the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The air permeability, oil resistance, water vapor transmission rate, water absorption, whiteness, tensile strength, and burst strength improved compared to the uncoated paper.

  • Researchpp 208-219Yoshioka, K., Yamada, T., Ohno, H., and Miyafuji, H. (2018). "Production of furan compounds from Cryptomeria japonica using pyridinium chloride under various conditions," BioRes. 13(1), 208-219.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cryptomeria japonica was treated with pyridinium chloride ([Py]Cl)-water mixtures under various conditions to determine the optimum conditions for efficient production of furan compounds, such as 2-hydroxyacetylfuran (2-HAF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and furfural. The maximum total yield of furan compounds, i.e., 9.24 wt.%, was obtained by the treatment of C. japonica with a 90% [Py]Cl and 10% water (w/w) solution for 30 min at 120 °C with a sample loading of 6 wt.%. The highest yield of 2-HAF from C. japonica was obtained by treatment for 3 min at 160 °C without the addition of water, although the total yield of furan compounds was lower than that obtained under the optimum treatment conditions. Scale-up of this process for efficient production of furan compounds from C. japonica was successfully performed under the optimum treatment conditions. In addition, the yields of 2-HAF and 5-HMF increased when ball-milled C. japonica containing low-crystallinity cellulose was treated under the optimum conditions.

  • Researchpp 220-230Lin, H., Sun, M., Li, J., Xu, Q., Yang, B., Wang, Q., Xie, W., Sun, S., Hu, K., and Zhang, L. (2018). "Purification and characterization of xylanase from spent mushroom compost and its application in saccharification of biomass wastes," BioRes. 13(1), 220-230.AbstractArticlePDF

    The activities of xylanase extracted from spent mushroom composts (SMCs) of Coprinus comatus, Auricularia auricular, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Agrocybe cylindracea, Hericium erinaceus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, and Tremella fuciformis were investigated. The crude extract from T. fuciformis SMC showed high xylanase activity with a value of 255.2 U/mg. Furthermore, this xylanase was purified using a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DEAE-cellulose), and gel filtration column chromatography. The enzyme was purified 20.7-fold with a yield of 43.1% and activity of 5293.8 U/mg. The purified xylanase showed maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 6, retained 80% activity after 1 h incubation at 50 °C, and sustained stability over a wide range of pH values (2 to 10). Under the optimal conditions, the enzyme exhibited a Km value of 2.5 mg/mL towards birchwood xylan. The activity of xylanase was enhanced in the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, NH4+, and Tween 80, while some metal ions, particularly Fe3+, inhibited its activity. The saccharification of several biomass wastes using the crude xylanase enzyme was studied. The results showed the potential for saccharification of alkaline-pretreated wheat bran solution where 75% saccharification was achieved.

  • Researchpp 231-240Wu, W., Jiang, B., Yang, L., and Jin, Y. (2018). "Isolation of lignin from Masson pine by liquid-liquid extraction based on complete dissolution in NaOH aqueous solution," BioRes. 13(1), 231-240.AbstractArticlePDF

    A method for lignin isolation from softwood based on complete dissolution in NaOH aqueous solution and liquid-liquid extraction was introduced. The structural features of milled alkali-soluble lignin (MAL) were comparatively analyzed with those of classical milled wood lignin (MWL) by means of alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO) and molecular weight, as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra analyses. The results showed that the yield of crude MAL (34.2%) was about twice as much as that of MWL (16.4%). The NBO product yields of MWL and MAL were quite similar. The weight-average molecular weight of MAL (10,400 g mol-1) was much higher than for MWL (6,970 g mol-1). Both MWL and MAL displayed similar FTIR, UV, 1H NMR, and 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectra. The total OH content of MAL (4.48 mmol g-1) was higher than that of MWL (3.89 mmol g-1). Compared with MWL, MAL showed similar structural characteristics but better isolation yield and higher molecular weight.