Peer-reviewed open-access journal devoted to the science and engineering of lignocellulosic materials, chemicals, and their applications for new uses and new capabilities
About the journal
BioResources (ISSN: 1930-2126) An international open-access journal that publishes original research and reviews about lignocellulosic materials, chemicals, & their applications.
- Editing services included with publication fee
- Articles published fast after acceptance
- Impact factor of 1.747 (Journal Citation Reports)
- Ranked #2 in Wood Science & Technology category (Google Scholar)
Now accepting nominations for the 2023 BioResources Early Career Investigator Award
- Editorialpp 1-3Zhang, S., Zhang, Q., and Zhu, S. (2024). “Some issues in implementing forest carbon sink projects to realize carbon emission reduction for climate change mitigation,” BioResources 19(1), 1-3.AbstractArticlePDF
The global climate warming caused by greenhouse gases poses a great threat to human living and biological ecosystems. To mitigate climate change, many measures have been taken to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Among them, the forest carbon sink (FCS) is considered as one of the most economical and effective carbon sequestration methods to realize carbon emission reductions in next 30 to 50 years. FCS projects are being implemented in many countries to increase their carbon sequestration and thereby to realize carbon emission reductions. However, there are some issues associated with implementation with such policies. Firstly, these projects mainly have focused only on carbon sequestration and have ignored the comprehensive ecological effects to obtain their best economical benefits. Secondly, implementing these projects fails to establish a sustainable and healthy forest industry because they place too much reliance on preferential policies from governments. Finally, the projects lack systematic technological standards and legislation to guarantee their smooth implementation. This editorial briefly discusses these issues for the suitable implementation of the FCS projects.
- Editorialpp 4-5Davim , J. P. (2024). “Sustainable and intelligent manufacturing: Perceptions in line with 2030 agenda of sustainable development,” BioResources 19(1), 4-5.AbstractArticlePDF
This editorial presents insights into sustainable and intelligent manufacturing in line with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. It begins by framing the concept of sustainable development and its objectives within the scope of the 2030 agenda. Then it explains the concept of sustainable and intelligent manufacturing in agreement with the latest developments in the industry. It finishes by envisioning the integration of Industry 5.0 in the 2030 agenda.
- Editorialpp 6-9Covinich, L. G., and Area, M. C. (2024). “Trends and limitations of lignin as a starting material,” BioResources 19(1), 6-9.AbstractArticlePDF
This editorial envisions a future in which greater value is obtained from technical lignins. The currently available amounts of such lignins are immense, and the costs are often in line with lignin’s fuel value. Key challenges are associated with lignin’s complexity. When envisioning future prospects for lignin, it is important to consider any differences between different types of technical lignin as a starting material.
- Editorialpp 10-12Chen, J., Zhang, X., Chen, Q., and Sun, X. (2024). “Functional conservation and preservation of waterlogged archaeological wood,” BioResources 19(1), 10-12.AbstractArticlePDF
Waterlogged archaeological wood of shipwrecks has been preserved under seawater for centuries, such that microbial erosion has caused severe bacterial degradation and acidification. These wooden cultural relics are of great significance for understanding the shipbuilding technology, trade activities, and environmental ecology of centuries ago. From the perspective of structure and composition, these waterlogged archeological woods have the characteristics of high water content and a large loss of lignin and cellulose, which makes the hull prone to collapse during preservation. Therefore, it is urgent to apply conservation and preservation treatments for deacidification and consolidation. Due to the fragility of wood and the complexity of repair work, the current development of conservation and preservation technology has multiple aims, such as antibacterial, deacidification, and reinforcement effects. In this editorial, the current challenges and conservation treatments with antimicrobial or deacidification utilities will be introduced.
- Editorialpp 13-14Lee, B. J., and Ko, P. (2024). “A way to improve recycling potential of fibers and to achieve circular economy,” BioResources 19(1), 13-14.AbstractArticlePDF
Even though the recycling of paper and paperboard is quite successful when compared to the recycling of other resources, there are many things to improve. Recovering the used paper and paperboard without contamination and sending it back to the papermill that produced it would enhance the recycling potential and efficiency of recovered fiber resources. Close collaboration between a paper and packaging company and a logistics company has made a big improvement in recycling and achieved the circular economy of fiber resources. It is time to find better ways to collaborate, thereby improving our capability to keep our planet green.
- Editorialpp 15-18Zhang, J., De Hoop, C. F., and Wu, Q. (2024). “Environmentally friendly, low thermal conductivity, fire retarding, mechanically robust cellulose nanofibril aerogels and their use for early fire alarm sensors in thermally insulating sustainable building applications,” BioResources 19(1), 15-18.AbstractArticlePDF
As a way to reduce carbon emissions, manufacturing an environmentally friendly and biodegradable cellulose aerogel material with low thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical, and flame retarding property to replace conventional foams is of significant interest in thermally insulating building applications. Primary questions to be addressed include how to design fire retarding and mechanically robust wood derived cellulose nanofibril aerogels as alternatives of expanded polystyrene and rigid polyurethane foams; how to develop aerogel materials in industrial-level manufacturing; and whether it is possible to further develop its early fire alarm sensors with ultra-low temperature sensitive limit and long signal durability by experimental and machine learning artificial intelligence approaches for thermally insulating sustainable building applications.
- Editorialpp 19-22Shen, J., and Hubbe, M. A. (2024). “Why paper technologists use the terms ‘wet end’ and ‘wet end chemistry’,” BioResources 19(1), 19-22.AbstractArticlePDF
Terminology plays a crucial role in shaping our understanding of a field. In this editorial, we focus on the widely used terms “wet end” and “wet end chemistry” within the realm of papermaking. By delving into historical records, our aim is to provide a deeper understanding and a clearer perspective on these terms. It is worth noting that exploring terminology can enhance comprehension and foster a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter.
- Editorialpp 6724-6726Ehman, N., Ponce de León, A., and Area, M. C. (2023). “Fractionation stream components of wood-based biorefinery: New agents in active or intelligent primary food packaging?” BioResources 18(4), 6724-6726.AbstractArticlePDF
Active and intelligent packaging production helps to improve the food value chain, granting reliability to consumers. According to these two premises, these packaging concepts were born. Sustainability and food protection criteria are two fundamental aspects that can be achieved with wood components.
- Editorialpp 6727-6730Zhang, J., Li, W., and Wu, Q. (2023). “Design of chemically recyclable nanocellulose chiral liquid crystal photonic elastomer vitrimer and its mechanosensitive colour-changing materials,” BioResources 18(4), 6727-6730.AbstractArticlePDF
The development of nanocellulose (CNCs) chiral liquid crystal photonic elastomeric vitrimer materials is promising for achieving needed reduction in carbon emissions (elastomer material recycling) and developing novel photonic functional materials. The primary questions discussed are about what is the basic principle of chiral liquid crystal and photonic property of CNCs, how to design vitrimer elastomer materials, and what is the general approach to designing CNC chiral liquid crystal photonic elastomer vitrimer and mechanosensitive colour-changing materials.
- Editorialpp 6731-6733Xie, M., Chen, J., Zhang, T., and Sun, X. (2023). “Angle-independent cellulosic photonic crystals for smart and sustainable colorimetric sensing,” BioResources 18(4), 6731-6733.AbstractArticlePDF
Cellulose nanocrystals, as well as hydroxypropyl cellulose, can form lyotropic liquid crystals, which can be processed into pigments or glitter products for sustainable coloration. Some stimuli-responsive polymers or nanoparticles are expected to form colorimetric sensors via co-assembly with these cellulosic photonic crystals. The co-assembly behavior of CNCs with polymers is determined by the hydrogen bonds and physical adsorption. Thus, adjusting the molecular chain structure, hydrophilicity, and electrostatic interaction of co-assembled polymers can lead to flexible and tunable colorimetric cellulosic sensors. Despite the advantages of cellulose-based amorphous photonic crystal (APC) pigments or glitters as sustainable and visually captivating sensors, there are still problems in efficient preparation and co-assembly conditions. This editorial will provide a brief discussion of the benefits, applications, and challenges of cellulose-based APCs.
- Editorialpp 6734-6736Liu, Z., Chen, C., Xie, W., and Deng, X. (2023). “Challenges of undergraduate programs in chemical processing engineering of forest products in universities of China,” BioResources 18(4), 6734-6736.AbstractArticlePDF
Seven universities in China currently offer undergraduate programs in chemical processing engineering of forest products (CPEFP), which play a crucial role in training professionals to meet the evolving demands of the forest-based chemical industry. However, these programs in Chinese universities face several challenges that require attention in order to better serve the development of the forest chemical industry.
- Editorialpp 6737-6740Hubbe, M. A. (2023). “Reuse, a neglected “R” word in “Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle”,” BioResources 18(4), 6737-6740.AbstractArticlePDF
This editorial considers hindrances that keep me from making sure that my used wooden furniture items don’t get thrown out at a point where their wooden content still has decades or hundreds of years of potential service left in them. I am a careless and lazy person, and I am not always appreciating the different ways in which other people might be ready to appreciate and utilize my cast-off items. Continued usage of a wooden item can be the ultimate in minimizing environmental impacts. I might envision that the only usage of an old, scuffed wooden dining room set is full restoration. But my niece might need it for her college apartment. A friend of a friend might need it for an informal basement art studio. Alternatively, if the set is really well beyond use in its original form, it could be converted into wood particles for particleboard or incinerated to generate renewable energy. Whether I use eBay, word of mouth, my church’s electronic bulletin board, or just put the item out by the curb on a sunny day, a wooden item of furniture has the potential to continue to provide valuable service for much longer than I might first imagine.
- Editorialpp 4373-4376Chudy, R., Cubbage, F., Mei, B., and Siry, J. (2023). “The Journal of Forest Business Research to support sustainable forest investments for economic, social, and environmental benefits,” BioResources 18(3), 4373-4376.AbstractArticlePDF
The forest sector plays an important role in sustainable development for market and nonmarket goods and services. Investors and policy makers are increasingly seeking to rely on forests to provide both commercial forest products and nature-based solutions that will meet consumer demands and contribute to bioenergy, climate change amelioration, and biodiversity. To meet the expectations of climate and energy policies, forecasts estimate that more than US$70 billion of investments are needed annually by 2050. To achieve this level of investments, these increasing demands for investments in forests must be based on scientific research, reliable data, and credible business applications. In the era of information overload, access to peer-reviewed open-access journals has never been more critical than it is now. We summarize the role of our new Journal of Forest Business Research in providing improved applied research for practitioners seeking to achieve better outcomes relative to investment, finance, and economic goals for sustainable development.
- Editorialpp 4377-4378Cho, S. (2023). “Paper industry's strategy for sustainable growth,” BioResources 18(3), 4377-4378.AbstractArticlePDF
While paper as a medium of information is declining in demand, paper as a sustainable alternative to plastic packaging is gaining interest. In light of these changes, the paper industry is seeking new growth by developing highly-functional paper material that can replace plastics. To this end, the industry needs to develop paper with high-barrier and strength properties, as well as technologies that can improve recyclability of such material. Beyond paper, the industry is also developing novel wood-based chemicals that can replace traditional fossil-fuel derivatives. For these to become commercially viable, the industry needs to focus on achieving cost-competitiveness. Finally to reinforce these two initiatives, the government needs to engage in active dialogues with the industry leaders and provide related R&D support.
- Editorialpp 4379-4382Teacă , C. A. (2023). “Making paper from materials that are essential to our lives/making paper without trees is the new “Must”,” BioResources 18(3), 4379-4382.AbstractArticlePDF
Paper, which is in fact a very complex cellulose-based product derived from different lignocellulosic resources, is usually regarded as a simple omnipresent commodity in our lives. Wood fibers derived from trees are the most employed sources for papermaking purposes. From an environmental protection perspective, and for their essential role in our life (they give us the life itself through their foliar system supporting the photosynthesis process), trees should not be extensively cut down and they should be used less and less for papermaking. Thus, employment of non-woody alternative sources for papermaking could be exploited more as an attractive and feasible option.
- Editorialpp 4383-4385Zhang, J., Fu, S., Lan, X., Yang, X. (2023). “Agricultural residue-based bioplastics: Potential options for high-value agricultural residue utilization,” BioResources 18(3), 4383-4385.AbstractArticlePDF
The extensive application of petroleum-based plastics has caused serious environmental pollution and ecological problems. Now, governments in the world are urgently aiming to develop biodegradable and renewable plastic alternatives. Agricultural waste, being widely available and affordable, may provide a resource of natural polymers to replace those from fossil sources for material manufacturing. However, there are still some non-negligible issues needing more attention. Herein, we briefly discuss the issues and challenges in the conversion of agricultural waste into bioplastics to provide a possible way for its further utilization.
- Editorialpp 4386-4387Huo, H. (2023). “Library books: Aging and preservation,” BioResources 18(3), 4386-4387.AbstractArticlePDF
This opinion piece focuses on the topic of preserving library books that are facing the problem of aging, and it delves into the importance of preserving such books and the challenges faced in doing so. The strategies adopted for preservation are discussed, and some questions are posed that need to be answered in the area of preservation of library books. This work may serve as a useful guide for librarians and others concerned with the preservation of books, providing insights into the best practices, challenges, and strategies for maintaining library books for posterity. Indeed, the preservation of library books is crucial for ensuring the continued accessibility and availability of knowledge and information for future generations.
- Editorialpp 4388-4391Trovagunta, R., and Hubbe, M. A. (2023). “Suberin as a bio-based flame-retardant?,” BioResources 18(3), 4388-4391.AbstractArticlePDF
Fire hazard is a constant risk in everyday life with the use of combustibles such as polymeric materials, wood, and fabrics, to name a few. Halogenated compounds have been widely used as efficient flame-retardants, often being applied as coatings or impregnations. With growing environmental concerns and regional bans on the use of halogenated flame-retardant compounds, bio-based alternatives are garnering significant research interest. Naturally occurring materials such as eggshells, DNA, and certain proteins have developed a self-defense mechanism against fire over millions of years of evolution. Cork, a naturally occurring biological tissue in outer bark, is of interest as it is often used as a heat shield and moisture repellent, specifically in spacecraft. A deeper look into the chemical structure of cork indicates the presence of suberin, a bio-polyester group that makes up as much as 40% of its chemical composition. These bio-polyester groups play a key role as a protective barrier between the plant and the surrounding external environment. Thus, the role of suberin in plants could be mimicked for the design of biobased flame-retardant materials.
- Editorialpp 4392-4394Alrubaie, M., and Resan, S. F. (2023). “Opportunities of using nanocellulose in construction materials,” BioResources 18(3), 4392-4394.AbstractArticlePDF
Numerous efforts have been made to mitigate the negative impacts of the production of construction materials on the environment. A reduction in the usage of virgin raw materials and the utilization of the waste materials or the biobased materials are examples of these efforts. However, a potential threat to the environment persists. Bacterial nanocellulose shows promise as a further way to produce environment-friendly construction materials.
- Editorialpp 4395-4398Zhang, J., Li, W., and Wu, Q. (2023). “Renewable resource-derived elastomer vitrimer and its sustainable manufacturing and application in extreme environmental conditions,” BioResources 18(3), 4395-4398.AbstractArticlePDF
The development of biomass (e.g., lignin, cellulose or vegetable oil)-based reversibly dynamic covalent cross-linked elastomer vitrimer materials is a novel approach to address issues related to the recycling of waste cross-linked elastomer material. The primary questions discussed are about how to design chemically recycled biomass-derived cross-linked elastomer vitrimer materials, what are the potential challenges in sustainable manufacturing of cross-linked renewable resources derived elastomer vitrimer materials, and what are their potential advanced applications under extreme environmental conditions, such as extreme low or high temperature and irradiated environments.
- Editorialpp 2520-2521Kim, J. D. (2023). “Time to collaborate for the age of paper,” BioResources 18(2), 2520-2521.AbstractArticlePDF
An awareness of the problems associated with the use of plastics can provide new opportunities for the paper industry. We have to try to enhance the public awareness of the environmental value of papers by using diverse advertising approaches. We have to collaborate to make paper more viable to replace plastics in many uses. The collaboration not only between industry and academia but also between countries and associations is essential to advance the age of paper.
- Editorialpp 2522- 2525Suota, M. J., Corazza, M. L., and Ramos, L. P. (2023). “Green solvents in biomass delignification for fuels and chemicals,” BioResources 18(2), 2522- 2525.AbstractArticlePDF
Lignin is considered by many as the ultimate barrier that impedes biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Several delignification strategies have been developed so far, but alkaline extraction remains the most widely used. However, this technology has a high chemical demand, consumes large amounts of water, and generates effluents that are hard to handle. Organosolv pulping is a good option for such application, but the impact of solvent losses and harmful emissions may be unsustainable. To this end, the use of greener alternatives such as water, biobased solvents, ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents, under sub- or supercritical conditions, may pave the road for the development of sustainable biorefineries.
- Editorialpp 2526-2527Zhang, S., Zhang, Q., Sa, M., and Zhu, S. (2023). “Lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable energy: Some neglected issues and misconceptions,” BioResources 18(2), 2526-2527.AbstractArticlePDF
Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is widely used in the field of renewable energy production because of its low price and easy availability. Many kinds of fuels from LB have been developed and are being used in our daily lives. The LB energy has become an indispensable part in the energy mix on account of its steady and sustainable supply. However, there are some neglected issues and misconceptions regarding its development and utilization, although it has numerous advantages over other energy sources. Firstly, its development and utilization can change the living environment of organisms and decrease biodiversity to some extent, relative to using other sources of energy. Secondly, it is not a completely carbon-neutralized fuel as has been claimed in some literature. Finally, its excessive exploitation can seriously damage the environment and biosystems. This editorial will give a brief discussion on some neglected issues and misconceptions during its development and utilization for its suitable exploitation.
- Editorialpp 2528-2530Song, S., Wang, Q., and Zhang, M. (2023). “Bamboo fiber-based insulating paper: A potential choice towards greener power and paper industries,” BioResources 18(2), 2528-2530.AbstractArticlePDF
Insulating paper is the key material utilized in ultra-high voltage (UHV) projects, and it affects the safe and stable operation of the whole power system. Cellulose fiber-based insulating paper, having the advantages of low price and environmental friendliness, has been widely used as the preferred insulating material for certain transformers. Bamboo, as a fast-growing raw material, has a favorable fiber length and its carbon sequestration is better than that of wood. Bamboo can be potentially used as a new raw material for insulating paper, thus promoting the green development of the power and paper industry. This article mainly discusses the challenges and potentials of bamboo fiber-based insulating paper and the opportunities of bamboo fiber-based paper materials.
- Editorialpp 2531-2534Hubbe, M. A. (2023). "How to make cellulose hate water – Change it, cover it, confuse it, or accept it as it is,” BioResources 18(2), 2531-2534.AbstractArticlePDF
In many of its current and potential applications, technologists treat the surface of cellulose to render it more hydrophobic. By use of a variety of hydrophobic sizing treatment strategies, the bulk cellulose phase becomes covered up with a layer having lower polarity and less inclination to interact with water. Often, the goal is to use a relatively low amount of additive to cover up or change just the surface of the cellulosic material, while still benefiting from the strength, recyclability, relatively low cost, and other favorable features of the bio-based material. But what often gets forgotten is that the hydrophilic nature of pure cellulose is not very high, and there are ways to manipulate such characteristics without reacting the material or covering it up. Sometimes reacting the cellulose with hydrophobic substituent groups appears to make it more water-loving. So, when thinking broadly of processing options for new applications, there are several contrasting approaches to consider.
- Editorialpp 1-3Hubbe, M. A., and Millan, A. (2023). "Using images to enliven scientific articles," BioResources 18(1) 1-3.AbstractArticlePDF
This editorial considers the use of images as a way to enhance the readability and possibly the impact of scientific writing. Readers are asked to envision effective scientific writing as a form of storytelling. Some stories can be enhanced by adding a diagram or a step-by-step procedure. Inherently dull results might be enlivened (in a cautious manner) with a non-typical graphical portrayal. A potentially tedious theoretical point might be lightened with a touch of humor, which might seem out of place if it were expressed in text. Keep these options in mind as you are creating your next story, i.e., your next research article.
- Editorialpp 4-5Zhang, J., Li, W., Wang, L., and Zhang, R. (2023). "Reducing end modification of nanocellulose as a novel approach for high-performance sustainable composites," BioResources 18(1), 4-5.AbstractArticlePDF
The development of nanocellulose sustainable materials is considered as one of the most promising alternatives to address plastic pollution issues, as global plastic wastes may increase to 11 billion tonnes by 2025. However, how to achieve the homogeneous dispersion of nanocelluloses (CNCs) and strong interfacial interactions with matrix materials, while well maintaining its percolation networks, is a challenge in this field. As opposed to the conventional surface chemical modification strategy, the reducing end modification of CNCs as a novel approach provides an opportunity to achieve this objective, which also opens a new door for the design of stimuli-responsive CNC sustainable composites, such as vitrimer materials and stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions.
- Editorialpp 5557-5561French, A. (2022). "How crystalline is my cellulose specimen? Probing the limits of x-ray diffraction," BioResources 17(4), 5557-5561.AbstractArticlePDF
Cellulose serves as a skeleton for many of the useful products upon which we rely on each day. When we want to learn about a skeleton, it makes sense to think about X-ray methods. The same can be said when it comes to learning about the crystallinity of cellulose. Over the past six decades, the Segal X-ray diffraction (XRD) method has been popular for judging the percent crystallinity of powder samples. However, XRD patterns for ideal cellulose crystals can be easily simulated, and limitations of the Segal and other methods become obvious. Calculated patterns for model 100% crystalline powder particles are predicted to be less crystalline by the Segal method. Except for the Rietveld method, current approaches do not account for particle orientation or different shapes of crystallites. The Rietveld method has so many variables that it can easily overfit the data. The take-away message is that routine XRD examination is important for showing sample characteristics, but fractional crystallinity values are affected by constraints related to simplifications required for the analysis.
BioResources provides a venue to promote scientific discourse and foster scientific developments related to sustainable manufacture involving lignocellulosic or woody biomass resources, including crop residues.
BioResources publishes articles discussing advances in the science and technology of biomass obtained from wood, crop residues, and other materials containing cellulose, lignin, and related biomaterials. Emphasis is placed on bioproducts, bioenergy, papermaking technology, new manufacturing materials, composite structures, and chemicals derived from lignocellulosic biomass.
BioResources is an open-access, web-based journal, with abstracts and articles appearing in hypertext meta-language (HTML) and full articles downloadable for free as Adobe portable document format (PDF) files. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in the journal, and users can use, reuse, and build upon the material in the journal for non-commercial purposes as long as attribution is given when appropriate or necessary.
The Co-Editors of BioResources are Dr. Lucian A. Lucia and Dr. Martin A. Hubbe, Department of Forest Biomaterials, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, Box 8005, Raleigh, NC 27695-8005, USA.
Searching and Databases
Articles published in BioResources can be found using the following database services (this list is not exhaustive):
- Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, ISI)
- SciFinder Scholar (American Chemical Society)
- Directory of Open Access Journals (Lund University)
- PaperChem (Elsevier, Engineering Village)
- Compendex (Elsevier, Engineering Village)
- Academic Search Complete (EBSCO Industries)
- CAB Abstracts (EBSCO Industries)
- Scopus (Elsevier)
- Google Scholar (scholar.google.com)
- CrossRef (crossref.org)
All research articles and scholarly review articles are subject to a peer review process. BioResources offers web-based submission and review of articles.
BioResources, a business unit of North Carolina State University, was started in 2006 with support from the College of Natural Resources and has received in-kind assistance both from the College and from the NC State Natural Resources Foundation.