NC State



Peer-reviewed open-access journal devoted to the science and engineering of lignocellulosic materials, chemicals, and their applications for new uses and new capabilities

About the journal

BioResources (ISSN: 1930-2126) An international open-access journal that publishes original research and reviews about lignocellulosic materials, chemicals, & their applications.

  • Editing services included with publication fee
  • Articles published fast after acceptance
  • Impact factor of 1.747 (Journal Citation Reports)
  • Ranked #2 in Wood Science & Technology category (Google Scholar)

Information and Deadlines for the 2022 BioResources Early Career Investigator Award

How to Get a New Account at BioResources

View our current issue

Browse Volumes and Issues

Submit a Manuscript

View the FRC Symposium Proceedings

Featured Editorials

  • Editorialpp 2520-2521Kim, J. D. (2023). “Time to collaborate for the age of paper,” BioResources 18(2), 2520-2521.AbstractArticlePDF

    An awareness of the problems associated with the use of plastics can provide new opportunities for the paper industry. We have to try to enhance the public awareness of the environmental value of papers by using diverse advertising approaches. We have to collaborate to make paper more viable to replace plastics in many uses. The collaboration not only between industry and academia but also between countries and associations is essential to advance the age of paper.

  • Editorialpp 2522- 2525Suota, M. J., Corazza, M. L., and Ramos, L. P. (2023). “Green solvents in biomass delignification for fuels and chemicals,” BioResources 18(2), 2522- 2525.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignin is considered by many as the ultimate barrier that impedes biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Several delignification strategies have been developed so far, but alkaline extraction remains the most widely used. However, this technology has a high chemical demand, consumes large amounts of water, and generates effluents that are hard to handle. Organosolv pulping is a good option for such application, but the impact of solvent losses and harmful emissions may be unsustainable. To this end, the use of greener alternatives such as water, biobased solvents, ionic liquids, and deep eutectic solvents, under sub- or supercritical conditions, may pave the road for the development of sustainable biorefineries.

  • Editorialpp 2526-2527Zhang, S., Zhang, Q., Sa, M., and Zhu, S. (2023). “Lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable energy: Some neglected issues and misconceptions,” BioResources 18(2), 2526-2527.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is widely used in the field of renewable energy production because of its low price and easy availability. Many kinds of fuels from LB have been developed and are being used in our daily lives. The LB energy has become an indispensable part in the energy mix on account of its steady and sustainable supply. However, there are some neglected issues and misconceptions regarding its development and utilization, although it has numerous advantages over other energy sources. Firstly, its development and utilization can change the living environment of organisms and decrease biodiversity to some extent, relative to using other sources of energy. Secondly, it is not a completely carbon-neutralized fuel as has been claimed in some literature. Finally, its excessive exploitation can seriously damage the environment and biosystems. This editorial will give a brief discussion on some neglected issues and misconceptions during its development and utilization for its suitable exploitation.

  • Editorialpp 2528-2530Song, S., Wang, Q., and Zhang, M. (2023). “Bamboo fiber-based insulating paper: A potential choice towards greener power and paper industries,” BioResources 18(2), 2528-2530.AbstractArticlePDF

    Insulating paper is the key material utilized in ultra-high voltage (UHV) projects, and it affects the safe and stable operation of the whole power system. Cellulose fiber-based insulating paper, having the advantages of low price and environmental friendliness, has been widely used as the preferred insulating material for certain transformers. Bamboo, as a fast-growing raw material, has a favorable fiber length and its carbon sequestration is better than that of wood. Bamboo can be potentially used as a new raw material for insulating paper, thus promoting the green development of the power and paper industry. This article mainly discusses the challenges and potentials of bamboo fiber-based insulating paper and the opportunities of bamboo fiber-based paper materials.

  • Editorialpp 2531-2534Hubbe, M. A. (2023). "How to make cellulose hate water – Change it, cover it, confuse it, or accept it as it is,” BioResources 18(2), 2531-2534.AbstractArticlePDF

    In many of its current and potential applications, technologists treat the surface of cellulose to render it more hydrophobic. By use of a variety of hydrophobic sizing treatment strategies, the bulk cellulose phase becomes covered up with a layer having lower polarity and less inclination to interact with water. Often, the goal is to use a relatively low amount of additive to cover up or change just the surface of the cellulosic material, while still benefiting from the strength, recyclability, relatively low cost, and other favorable features of the bio-based material. But what often gets forgotten is that the hydrophilic nature of pure cellulose is not very high, and there are ways to manipulate such characteristics without reacting the material or covering it up. Sometimes reacting the cellulose with hydrophobic substituent groups appears to make it more water-loving. So, when thinking broadly of processing options for new applications, there are several contrasting approaches to consider.

  • Editorialpp 1-3Hubbe, M. A., and  Millan, A. (2023). "Using images to enliven scientific articles," BioResources 18(1) 1-3.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial considers the use of images as a way to enhance the readability and possibly the impact of scientific writing. Readers are asked to envision effective scientific writing as a form of storytelling. Some stories can be enhanced by adding a diagram or a step-by-step procedure. Inherently dull results might be enlivened (in a cautious manner) with a non-typical graphical portrayal. A potentially tedious theoretical point might be lightened with a touch of humor, which might seem out of place if it were expressed in text. Keep these options in mind as you are creating your next story, i.e., your next research article.

  • Editorialpp 4-5Zhang, J., Li, W., Wang, L., and Zhang, R. (2023). "Reducing end modification of nanocellulose as a novel approach for high-performance sustainable composites," BioResources 18(1), 4-5.AbstractArticlePDF

    The development of nanocellulose sustainable materials is considered as one of the most promising alternatives to address plastic pollution issues, as global plastic wastes may increase to 11 billion tonnes by 2025. However, how to achieve the homogeneous dispersion of nanocelluloses (CNCs) and strong interfacial interactions with matrix materials, while well maintaining its percolation networks, is a challenge in this field. As opposed to the conventional surface chemical modification strategy, the reducing end modification of CNCs as a novel approach provides an opportunity to achieve this objective, which also opens a new door for the design of stimuli-responsive CNC sustainable composites, such as vitrimer materials and stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions.

  • Editorialpp 5557-5561French, A. (2022). "How crystalline is my cellulose specimen? Probing the limits of x-ray diffraction," BioResources 17(4), 5557-5561.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cellulose serves as a skeleton for many of the useful products upon which we rely on each day. When we want to learn about a skeleton, it makes sense to think about X-ray methods. The same can be said when it comes to learning about the crystallinity of cellulose. Over the past six decades, the Segal X-ray diffraction (XRD) method has been popular for judging the percent crystallinity of powder samples. However, XRD patterns for ideal cellulose crystals can be easily simulated, and limitations of the Segal and other methods become obvious. Calculated patterns for model 100% crystalline powder particles are predicted to be less crystalline by the Segal method. Except for the Rietveld method, current approaches do not account for particle orientation or different shapes of crystallites. The Rietveld method has so many variables that it can easily overfit the data. The take-away message is that routine XRD examination is important for showing sample characteristics, but fractional crystallinity values are affected by constraints related to simplifications required for the analysis.

  • Editorialpp 5562-5564Lucia, L. A. (2022). "Compositomics: A timely conceptual framework for future advancements in green materials’ design and development," BioResources 17(4), 5562-5564.AbstractArticlePDF

    Higher-order systems found in nature continue to be a source of inspiration for designing highly functional artificial systems. However, compositing these systems requires a precise understanding of how the components required can affect final desired responses. This non-trivial task is daunting and therefore will require a multiplicity of approaches elaborated under the umbrella of compositomics, a proposed –omics cluster dedicated to fabricating green materials through modeling, systems thinking, and machine learning.

  • Editorialpp 5565-5567Jablonsky, M., and Šima, J. (2022). "Let's contribute to protecting our planet by reducing the brightness of paper: Less is more," BioResources 17(4), 5565-5567.AbstractArticlePDF

    Sustaining life on the Earth with its ever-growing population is forcing changes in people’s way of life, industrial and agricultural production, exploitation of energy resources, and approaches to ecology. We face continual growth in the world’s population, and the demand for materials is growing even more rapidly. Every manufacturing and consumer sector is looking for ways to save energy and materials, attempting to minimize their negative impacts on the environment. In the pulp and paper industry, one of the segments in which progress can be made and help protect the planet is to reduce the brightness of paper. Such a reduction would lead to a lowering in the energy and material costs associated with paper production.

  • Editorialpp 3871-3874Hermann, P., and Heinze, T. (2022). "Renewable thermoplastics – Starch fatty acid esters as alternatives to synthetics," BioResources 17(3), 3871-3874.AbstractArticlePDF

    Thermoplastics are an important class of polymers that find widespread use in a broad variety of applications. Because of environmental concerns regarding the lack of biodegradability of synthetic thermoplastics, green alternatives are increasingly studied that should be both based on renewable resources and biodegradable. In this regard, polysaccharide esters of naturally occurring fatty acids are in the center of interest.

  • Editorialpp 3875-3876Youn, H. J., and Lee, H. L. (2022). "Public awareness of paper’s sustainability in a digital society," BioResources 17(3), 3875-3876.AbstractArticlePDF

    People often think of paper as an environmentally harmful product because trees are cut down to make it. A new generation that has grown up in today’s digital society may think that the use of digital devices is a waste-free way to protect our environment. Although the pulp and paper industry is making various efforts to preserve the environment, it has not been properly recognized. Developing new technologies to produce better products at lower cost while protecting our environment is important. But it is also important to enhance the image of the pulp and paper industry in the eyes of the public. The pulp and paper industry’s efforts to reforestation for raw materials and to expand the recycling of waste paper should be more widely introduced.

  • Editorialpp 3877-3879Guo, Y., and Yu, X. (2022). "When mimetics meets chitosan," BioResources 17(3), 3877-3879.AbstractArticlePDF

    The concept of mimetics can be defined in terms of “learning from others” or “inspired by others”, and indeed its essence is “universal”. A well-known marvelous example of designing materials inspired by nature is human flight. Essentially, everything can be mimicked somehow in this huge world. In this sense, the characteristics of polysaccharides, including chitosan, can shed light on new product development. Owing to the interesting features of chitosan, such as nontoxicity, biodegradability, antibacterial activity, and the puzzling hydrophobic nature of chitosan films, the synthesis of chitosan-mimetic materials represents a promising strategy for developing a diverse group of functional products. The abundant amino and hydroxyl groups of chitosan are the basis for designing different functional materials. It is expected that chitosan-mimetic strategies may potentially address issues or challenges related to the commercial use of chitosan. For example, chitosan functions well as a paper additive (e.g. surface sizing); however, its use is strongly hampered by high cost, poor water-solubility, etc. In this case, chitosan-mimetic products derived from low-cost materials (e.g., starch) may be considered as alternatives to chitosan. Limitless types of products stemming from the interaction between mimetics and chitosan are designable, potentially creating endless opportunities for different industrial sectors.

  • Editorialpp 3880-3882Jablonsky, M., and Šima, J. (2022). "Is it correct to name DESs deep eutectic solvents?" BioResources 17(3), 3880-3882.AbstractArticlePDF

    Recent years of research and development have brought frequently used terms for new types of green solvents to the lexicon of scientists. This can lead to terminological inaccuracies. In particular, different names are being used for the same types of solvents: Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES); Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents; Low-Transition Temperature Mixtures; Low-Melting Mixtures. It would, therefore, be appropriate to eliminate certain inaccuracies and to use simplification, which means using the general term “Low-Temperature Transition Mixtures” or introducing the term “DES-like mixtures”.



BioResources provides a venue to promote scientific discourse and foster scientific developments related to sustainable manufacture involving lignocellulosic or woody biomass resources, including crop residues.



BioResources publishes articles discussing advances in the science and technology of biomass obtained from wood, crop residues, and other materials containing cellulose, lignin, and related biomaterials. Emphasis is placed on bioproducts, bioenergy, papermaking technology, new manufacturing materials, composite structures, and chemicals derived from lignocellulosic biomass.



BioResources is an open-access, web-based journal, with abstracts and articles appearing in hypertext meta-language (HTML) and full articles downloadable for free as Adobe portable document format (PDF) files. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in the journal, and users can use, reuse, and build upon the material in the journal for non-commercial purposes as long as attribution is given when appropriate or necessary.

Searching and Databases

Articles published in BioResources can be found using the following database services (this list is not exhaustive):

  • Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, ISI)
  • SciFinder Scholar (American Chemical Society)
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (Lund University)
  • PaperChem (Elsevier, Engineering Village)
  • Compendex (Elsevier, Engineering Village)
  • Academic Search Complete (EBSCO Industries)
  • CAB Abstracts (EBSCO Industries)
  • Scopus (Elsevier)
  • Google Scholar (
  • CrossRef (

Peer-Review Policy

All research articles and scholarly review articles are subject to a peer review process. BioResources offers web-based submission and review of articles.


BioResources, a business unit of North Carolina State University, was started in 2006 with support from the College of Natural Resources and has received in-kind assistance both from the College and from the NC State Natural Resources Foundation.