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Peer-reviewed open-access journal devoted to the science and engineering of lignocellulosic materials, chemicals, and their applications for new uses and new capabilities

About the journal

BioResources (ISSN: 1930-2126) An international open-access journal that publishes original research and reviews about lignocellulosic materials, chemicals, & their applications.

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  • Articles published fast after acceptance
  • Impact factor of 1.747 (Journal Citation Reports)
  • Ranked #2 in Wood Science & Technology category (Google Scholar)

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Featured Editorials

  • Editorialpp 4040-4042Lan, K. (2024). “Some modeling challenges in dynamic life cycle assessment,” BioResources 19(3), 4040-4042.AbstractArticlePDF

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been a mainstream tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of products, services, and systems. Current LCAs inherently rely on the static basis and commonly fail to include temporal considerations. To better assist in the decision-making for sustainable development, dynamic LCA has been initiated to answer more complex and interdisciplinary questions. As in its initial phase, dynamic LCA faces many modeling challenges that at the same time are meaningful research opportunities. In modeling dynamic LCA, there are several key aspects that need more attention for contribution and close collaboration across the first three phases of the LCA framework.

  • Editorialpp 4043-4046Zhang, J., and Pal, L. (2024). “Paper drinking straws coated with cellulose acetate and polyhydroxyalkanoates via an entropy-driven approach and natural colorants as alternatives for plastic drinking straws,” BioResources 19(3), 4043-4046.AbstractArticlePDF

    As a way to reduce microplastics or nano-plastics in the ocean, it is of interest to develop biodegradable paper-based drinking straws to replace  non-degradable plastic drinking straws. Primary questions to be addressed include how to design suitable coatings for paper drinking straws. Such coatings not only need to resist water. In addition, consumers have high expectations for the strength of a drinking straw. It is proposed here to replace non-biodegradable polypropylene, which is presently the main component of straws, with biodegradable and hydrophobic coating components via an entropy-driven approach. It is further proposed to develop colored paper-based drinking straws with cellulose nematic liquid crystal photonic pigments as a way to make the product stand out visibly, while at the same time mediating the usage of toxic chemical pigments.

  • Editorialpp 4047-4049Zhang, S., Zhang, Q., Guo, X., and Zhu, S. (2024). “Kudzu: An invasive plant or a sustainable resource,” BioResources 19(3), 4047-4049.AbstractArticlePDF

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi) is a fast growing leguminous vine plant that has strong reproductive ability and low requirements on its growing conditions. It has been considered an invasive plant in some places because of its aggressive growth, which can destroy the habitat for native plants and animals. However, its strong environmental adaptability makes it easily cultivated as a sustainable resource. Kudzu can also keep soil from washing away and play an important role in ecological protection. Kudzu has had numerous practical uses in our daily lives since ancient times. For example, its root, stem, flower and pod are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Its root is a healthy food. And its leaf is used as fodder and forage for livestock. Moreover, some recent studies on kudzu have found that it is in rich of bioactive ingredients, especially isoflavones, which further broadens its uses in medicine, healthy food, and cosmetics industries. Its high starch and cellulose content makes it a promising feedstock for biofuel production and paper preparation. This editorial will give a brief discussion on kudzu and its comprehensive utilization.

  • Editorialpp 4050-4052Yuan, Z. (2024). “Graphene-cellulose hydrogels: An apt combination,” BioResources 19(3), 4050-4052.AbstractArticlePDF

    Graphene-cellulose hydrogels have been extensively studied in the field of functional hydrogels. This editorial presents an overview of graphene-based and cellulose-derived materials, highlighting the unique characteristics of these two materials and the synergistic advantages achieved by combining them to construct graphene-cellulose composite hydrogels. The aim is to provide novel insights for developing functional cellulose-based hydrogels enabled by carbon nanomaterials.

  • Editorialpp 4053-4055Hubbe, M. A. (2024). “Artists, papermakers, and the future,” BioResources 19(3), 4053-4055.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial considers three groups of individuals and how they often find themselves following common ways of thinking. Artists, especially those who become well known, are hard workers and somewhat stubborn. Once they have found a type of paper that works well for them, they tend to develop loyalty to it, regardless of what the label on the ream wrap may say. Papermakers, ancient and modern, likewise have tended to stick with practices that are convenient to them at the moment, whether or not they contribute to archival quality. Fortunately, the transition to alkaline papermaking practices means that modern printing papers tend to last a lot longer. Increasing knowledge of the importance of acid-free paper, as well as the principles of sustainability, are making positive contributions to our ongoing cultural heritage, at least to the part of that heritage that is related to cellulosic materials.

  • Editorialpp 2003-2006Garbowski, T. (2024). “Revolutionizing corrugated board production and optimization with artificial intelligence,” BioResources 19(2), 2003-2006.AbstractArticlePDF

    In the field of corrugated board production and packaging optimization, the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has initiated a paradigm shift. This paper presents a brief analysis of AI’s role in revolutionizing both the production of corrugated board and the design of corrugated packaging. It explores the integration of AI in the homogenization process of complex corrugated board structures into single-layer, shallow shell-based computational models, aiming to improve and accelerate load-bearing calculations. This work presents also how AI’s predictive and analytical capabilities are pivotal in achieving efficiency, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness in the corrugated board industry.

  • Editorialpp 2007-2009Hubbe, M. A., and Savithri, D.  (2024). “Cellulose fibers as a trendsetter for the circular economy that we urgently need,” BioResources 19(2), 2007-2009.AbstractArticlePDF

    Picking up a discarded can or bottle and placing it in a recycling bin may seem like a very small step to take in the direction of making a better world. The scope of benefits that might accrue, by combining many such steps, and making careful plans, was highlighted in a recent Waste to Advanced Resources Matter (WARM) workshop hosted at this university. As shown during the discussions at the workshop, those who are deeply involved with issues of waste management, climate change issues, and care for our planet already know the “broad brush” answers regarding what needs to be done. Now is the time for action in implementing efficient and widespread recovery of valuable materials and energy from what we presently throw away.

  • Editorialpp 2010-2012Wang, Q., and Feng, X. (2024). “High-strength engineered biomaterials study and development needs in China,” BioResources 19(2), 2010-2012.AbstractArticlePDF

    Engineered biomaterials play a crucial role in the construction industry. The study and development of engineered biomaterials with high-strength are necessary to fulfill the construction requirements for medium and high-rise buildings and long-span bridges. Further promoting the localization of high-strength engineered biomaterials is crucial in terms of reducing CO2 emissions, effectively utilizing land resources, and taking into account the unique structure of forest resources in China. The goal of this modification is to satisfy the rising demand for eco-friendly living spaces.

  • Editorialpp 2013-2016Blanco, A. (2024). “The role of Open Science in our research,” BioResources 19(2), 2013-2016.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial considers Open Science, what it is, what are its potential benefits, what are the pillars of engagement upon which it rests, and what are some of the main challenges facing its further adoption by research communities. At its core, Open Science involves sharing not only the contents of a traditional research article, but also of any source data and methodologies upon which the reported findings are based. Though some extra work may be required, usually without anyone providing additional resources to do that work, continuous developments in digital technology are making Open Science easier to implement. While not all data is suitable to be shared, Open Science practices are widely supported within the wider research community and funding organizations.

  • Editorialpp 1-3Zhang, S., Zhang, Q., and Zhu, S. (2024). “Some issues in implementing forest carbon sink projects to realize carbon emission reduction for climate change mitigation,” BioResources 19(1), 1-3.AbstractArticlePDF

    The global climate warming caused by greenhouse gases poses a great threat to human living and biological ecosystems. To mitigate climate change, many measures have been taken to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Among them, the forest carbon sink (FCS) is considered as one of the most economical and effective carbon sequestration methods to realize carbon emission reductions in next 30 to 50 years. FCS projects are being implemented in many countries to increase their carbon sequestration and thereby to realize carbon emission reductions. However, there are some issues associated with implementation with such policies. Firstly, these projects mainly have focused only on carbon sequestration and have ignored the comprehensive ecological effects to obtain their best economical benefits. Secondly, implementing these projects fails to establish a sustainable and healthy forest industry because they place too much reliance on preferential policies from governments. Finally, the projects lack systematic technological standards and legislation to guarantee their smooth implementation. This editorial briefly discusses these issues for the suitable implementation of the FCS projects.

  • Editorialpp 4-5Davim , J. P. (2024). “Sustainable and intelligent manufacturing: Perceptions in line with 2030 agenda of sustainable development,” BioResources 19(1), 4-5.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial presents insights into sustainable and intelligent manufacturing in line with the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. It begins by framing the concept of sustainable development and its objectives within the scope of the 2030 agenda. Then it explains the concept of sustainable and intelligent manufacturing in agreement with the latest developments in the industry. It finishes by envisioning the integration of Industry 5.0 in the 2030 agenda.

  • Editorialpp 6-9Covinich, L. G., and Area, M. C. (2024). “Trends and limitations of lignin as a starting material,” BioResources 19(1), 6-9.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial envisions a future in which greater value is obtained from technical lignins. The currently available amounts of such lignins are immense, and the costs are often in line with lignin’s fuel value. Key challenges are associated with lignin’s complexity. When envisioning future prospects for lignin, it is important to consider any differences between different types of technical lignin as a starting material.

  • Editorialpp 10-12Chen, J., Zhang, X., Chen, Q., and Sun, X. (2024). “Functional conservation and preservation of waterlogged archaeological wood,” BioResources 19(1), 10-12.AbstractArticlePDF

    Waterlogged archaeological wood of shipwrecks has been preserved under seawater for centuries, such that microbial erosion has caused severe bacterial degradation and acidification. These wooden cultural relics are of great significance for understanding the shipbuilding technology, trade activities, and environmental ecology of centuries ago. From the perspective of structure and composition, these waterlogged archeological woods have the characteristics of high water content and a large loss of lignin and cellulose, which makes the hull prone to collapse during preservation. Therefore, it is urgent to apply conservation and preservation treatments for deacidification and consolidation. Due to the fragility of wood and the complexity of repair work, the current development of conservation and preservation technology has multiple aims, such as antibacterial, deacidification, and reinforcement effects. In this editorial, the current challenges and conservation treatments with antimicrobial or deacidification utilities will be introduced.

  • Editorialpp 13-14Lee, B. J., and Ko, P. (2024). “A way to improve recycling potential of fibers and to achieve circular economy,” BioResources 19(1), 13-14.AbstractArticlePDF

    Even though the recycling of paper and paperboard is quite successful when compared to the recycling of other resources, there are many things to improve. Recovering the used paper and paperboard without contamination and sending it back to the papermill that produced it would enhance the recycling potential and efficiency of recovered fiber resources. Close collaboration between a paper and packaging company and a logistics company has made a big improvement in recycling and achieved the circular economy of fiber resources. It is time to find better ways to collaborate, thereby improving our capability to keep our planet green.

  • Editorialpp 15-18Zhang, J., De Hoop, C. F., and Wu, Q. (2024). “Environmentally friendly, low thermal conductivity, fire retarding, mechanically robust cellulose nanofibril aerogels and their use for early fire alarm sensors in thermally insulating sustainable building applications,” BioResources 19(1), 15-18.AbstractArticlePDF

    As a way to reduce carbon emissions, manufacturing an environmentally friendly and biodegradable cellulose aerogel material with low thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical, and flame retarding property to replace conventional foams is of significant interest in thermally insulating building applications. Primary questions to be addressed include how to design fire retarding and mechanically robust wood derived cellulose nanofibril aerogels as alternatives of expanded polystyrene and rigid polyurethane foams; how to develop aerogel materials in industrial-level manufacturing; and whether it is possible to further develop its early fire alarm sensors with ultra-low temperature sensitive limit and long signal durability by experimental and machine learning artificial intelligence approaches for thermally insulating sustainable building applications.

  • Editorialpp 19-22Shen, J., and Hubbe, M. A. (2024). “Why paper technologists use the terms ‘wet end’ and ‘wet end chemistry’,” BioResources 19(1), 19-22.AbstractArticlePDF

    Terminology plays a crucial role in shaping our understanding of a field. In this editorial, we focus on the widely used terms “wet end” and “wet end chemistry” within the realm of papermaking. By delving into historical records, our aim is to provide a deeper understanding and a clearer perspective on these terms. It is worth noting that exploring terminology can enhance comprehension and foster a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter.

  • Editorialpp 6724-6726Ehman, N., Ponce de León, A., and Area, M. C. (2023). “Fractionation stream components of wood-based biorefinery: New agents in active or intelligent primary food packaging?BioResources 18(4), 6724-6726.AbstractArticlePDF

    Active and intelligent packaging production helps to improve the food value chain, granting reliability to consumers. According to these two premises, these packaging concepts were born. Sustainability and food protection criteria are two fundamental aspects that can be achieved with wood components.

  • Editorialpp 6727-6730Zhang, J., Li, W., and Wu, Q. (2023). “Design of chemically recyclable nanocellulose chiral liquid crystal photonic elastomer vitrimer and its mechanosensitive colour-changing materials,” BioResources 18(4), 6727-6730.AbstractArticlePDF

    The development of nanocellulose (CNCs) chiral liquid crystal photonic elastomeric vitrimer materials is promising for achieving needed reduction in carbon emissions (elastomer material recycling) and developing novel photonic functional materials. The primary questions discussed are about what is the basic principle of chiral liquid crystal and photonic property of CNCs, how to design vitrimer elastomer materials, and what is the general approach to designing CNC chiral liquid crystal photonic elastomer vitrimer and mechanosensitive colour-changing materials.


  • Editorialpp 6731-6733Xie, M., Chen, J., Zhang, T., and Sun, X. (2023). “Angle-independent cellulosic photonic crystals for smart and sustainable colorimetric sensing,” BioResources 18(4), 6731-6733.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cellulose nanocrystals, as well as hydroxypropyl cellulose, can form lyotropic liquid crystals, which can be processed into pigments or glitter products for sustainable coloration. Some stimuli-responsive polymers or nanoparticles are expected to form colorimetric sensors via co-assembly with these cellulosic photonic crystals. The co-assembly behavior of CNCs with polymers is determined by the hydrogen bonds and physical adsorption. Thus, adjusting the molecular chain structure, hydrophilicity, and electrostatic interaction of co-assembled polymers can lead to flexible and tunable colorimetric cellulosic sensors. Despite the advantages of cellulose-based amorphous photonic crystal (APC) pigments or glitters as sustainable and visually captivating sensors, there are still problems in efficient preparation and co-assembly conditions. This editorial will provide a brief discussion of the benefits, applications, and challenges of cellulose-based APCs.

  • Editorialpp 6734-6736Liu, Z., Chen, C., Xie, W., and Deng, X. (2023). “Challenges of undergraduate programs in chemical processing engineering of forest products in universities of China,” BioResources 18(4), 6734-6736.AbstractArticlePDF

    Seven universities in China currently offer undergraduate programs in chemical processing engineering of forest products (CPEFP), which play a crucial role in training professionals to meet the evolving demands of the forest-based chemical industry. However, these programs in Chinese universities face several challenges that require attention in order to better serve the development of the forest chemical industry.

  • Editorialpp 6737-6740Hubbe, M. A. (2023). “Reuse, a neglected “R” word in “Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle”,” BioResources 18(4), 6737-6740.AbstractArticlePDF

    This editorial considers hindrances that keep me from making sure that my used wooden furniture items don’t get thrown out at a point where their wooden content still has decades or hundreds of years of potential service left in them.  I am a careless and lazy person, and I am not always appreciating the different ways in which other people might be ready to appreciate and utilize my cast-off items.  Continued usage of a wooden item can be the ultimate in minimizing environmental impacts.  I might envision that the only usage of an old, scuffed wooden dining room set is full restoration.  But my niece might need it for her college apartment.  A friend of a friend might need it for an informal basement art studio.  Alternatively, if the set is really well beyond use in its original form, it could be converted into wood particles for particleboard or incinerated to generate renewable energy.  Whether I use eBay, word of mouth, my church’s electronic bulletin board, or just put the item out by the curb on a sunny day, a wooden item of furniture has the potential to continue to provide valuable service for much longer than I might first imagine.

  • Editorialpp 4373-4376Chudy, R., Cubbage, F., Mei, B., and Siry, J. (2023). “The Journal of Forest Business Research to support sustainable forest investments for economic, social, and environmental benefits,” BioResources 18(3), 4373-4376.AbstractArticlePDF

    The forest sector plays an important role in sustainable development for market and nonmarket goods and services. Investors and policy makers are increasingly seeking to rely on forests to provide both commercial forest products and nature-based solutions that will meet consumer demands and contribute to bioenergy, climate change amelioration, and biodiversity. To meet the expectations of climate and energy policies, forecasts estimate that more than US$70 billion of investments are needed annually by 2050. To achieve this level of investments, these increasing demands for investments in forests must be based on scientific research, reliable data, and credible business applications. In the era of information overload, access to peer-reviewed open-access journals has never been more critical than it is now. We summarize the role of our new Journal of Forest Business Research in providing improved applied research for practitioners seeking to achieve better outcomes relative to investment, finance, and economic goals for sustainable development.

  • Editorialpp 4377-4378Cho, S. (2023). “Paper industry's strategy for sustainable growth,” BioResources 18(3), 4377-4378.AbstractArticlePDF

    While paper as a medium of information is declining in demand, paper as a sustainable alternative to plastic packaging is gaining interest. In light of these changes, the paper industry is seeking new growth by developing highly-functional paper material that can replace plastics. To this end, the industry needs to develop paper with high-barrier and strength properties, as well as technologies that can improve recyclability of such material. Beyond paper, the industry is also developing novel wood-based chemicals that can replace traditional fossil-fuel derivatives. For these to become commercially viable, the industry needs to focus on achieving cost-competitiveness. Finally to reinforce these two initiatives, the government needs to engage in active dialogues with the industry leaders and provide related R&D support.

  • Editorialpp 4379-4382Teacă , C. A. (2023). “Making paper from materials that are essential to our lives/making paper without trees is the new “Must”,” BioResources 18(3), 4379-4382.AbstractArticlePDF

    Paper, which is in fact a very complex cellulose-based product derived from different lignocellulosic resources, is usually regarded as a simple omnipresent commodity in our lives. Wood fibers derived from trees are the most employed sources for papermaking purposes. From an environmental protection perspective, and for their essential role in our life (they give us the life itself through their foliar system supporting the photosynthesis process), trees should not be extensively cut down and they should be used less and less for papermaking. Thus, employment of non-woody alternative sources for papermaking could be exploited more as an attractive and feasible option.

  • Editorialpp 4383-4385Zhang, J., Fu, S., Lan, X., Yang, X. (2023). “Agricultural residue-based bioplastics: Potential options for high-value agricultural residue utilization,” BioResources 18(3), 4383-4385.AbstractArticlePDF

    The extensive application of petroleum-based plastics has caused serious environmental pollution and ecological problems. Now, governments in the world are urgently aiming to develop biodegradable and renewable plastic alternatives. Agricultural waste, being widely available and affordable, may provide a resource of natural polymers to replace those from fossil sources for material manufacturing. However, there are still some non-negligible issues needing more attention. Herein, we briefly discuss the issues and challenges in the conversion of agricultural waste into bioplastics to provide a possible way for its further utilization.


  • Editorialpp 4386-4387Huo, H. (2023). “Library books: Aging and preservation,” BioResources 18(3), 4386-4387.AbstractArticlePDF

    This opinion piece focuses on the topic of preserving library books that are facing the problem of aging, and it delves into the importance of preserving such books and the challenges faced in doing so. The strategies adopted for preservation are discussed, and some questions are posed that need to be answered in the area of preservation of library books. This work may serve as a useful guide for librarians and others concerned with the preservation of books, providing insights into the best practices, challenges, and strategies for maintaining library books for posterity. Indeed, the preservation of library books is crucial for ensuring the continued accessibility and availability of knowledge and information for future generations.

  • Editorialpp 4388-4391Trovagunta, R., and Hubbe, M. A. (2023). “Suberin as a bio-based flame-retardant?,” BioResources 18(3), 4388-4391.AbstractArticlePDF

    Fire hazard is a constant risk in everyday life with the use of combustibles such as polymeric materials, wood, and fabrics, to name a few. Halogenated compounds have been widely used as efficient flame-retardants, often being applied as coatings or impregnations. With growing environmental concerns and regional bans on the use of halogenated flame-retardant compounds, bio-based alternatives are garnering significant research interest. Naturally occurring materials such as eggshells, DNA, and certain proteins have developed a self-defense mechanism against fire over millions of years of evolution. Cork, a naturally occurring biological tissue in outer bark, is of interest as it is often used as a heat shield and moisture repellent, specifically in spacecraft. A deeper look into the chemical structure of cork indicates the presence of suberin, a bio-polyester group that makes up as much as 40% of its chemical composition. These bio-polyester groups play a key role as a protective barrier between the plant and the surrounding external environment. Thus, the role of suberin in plants could be mimicked for the design of biobased flame-retardant materials.

  • Editorialpp 4392-4394Alrubaie, M., and Resan, S. F.  (2023). “Opportunities of using nanocellulose in construction materials,” BioResources 18(3), 4392-4394.AbstractArticlePDF

    Numerous efforts have been made to mitigate the negative impacts of the production of construction materials on the environment. A reduction in the usage of virgin raw materials and the utilization of the waste materials or the biobased materials are examples of these efforts. However, a potential threat to the environment persists. Bacterial nanocellulose shows promise as a further way to produce environment-friendly construction materials.

  • Editorialpp 4395-4398Zhang, J., Li, W., and Wu, Q. (2023). “Renewable resource-derived elastomer vitrimer and its sustainable manufacturing and application in extreme environmental conditions,” BioResources 18(3), 4395-4398.AbstractArticlePDF

    The development of biomass (e.g., lignin, cellulose or vegetable oil)-based reversibly dynamic covalent cross-linked elastomer vitrimer materials is a novel approach to address issues related to the recycling of waste cross-linked elastomer material. The primary questions discussed are about how to design chemically recycled biomass-derived cross-linked elastomer vitrimer materials, what are the potential challenges in sustainable manufacturing of cross-linked renewable resources derived elastomer vitrimer materials, and what are their potential advanced applications under extreme environmental conditions, such as extreme low or high temperature and irradiated environments.



BioResources provides a venue to promote scientific discourse and foster scientific developments related to sustainable manufacture involving lignocellulosic or woody biomass resources, including crop residues.



BioResources publishes articles discussing advances in the science and technology of biomass obtained from wood, crop residues, and other materials containing cellulose, lignin, and related biomaterials. Emphasis is placed on bioproducts, bioenergy, papermaking technology, new manufacturing materials, composite structures, and chemicals derived from lignocellulosic biomass.



BioResources is an open-access, web-based journal, with abstracts and articles appearing in hypertext meta-language (HTML) and full articles downloadable for free as Adobe portable document format (PDF) files. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in the journal, and users can use, reuse, and build upon the material in the journal for non-commercial purposes as long as attribution is given when appropriate or necessary.


The Co-Editors of BioResources are Dr. Lucian A. Lucia and Dr. Martin A. Hubbe, Department of Forest Biomaterials, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, Box 8005, Raleigh, NC 27695-8005, USA.

Dr. Lucia
(919) 515-7707

Dr. Hubbe
(919) 513-3022

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Articles published in BioResources can be found using the following database services (this list is not exhaustive):

  • Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, ISI)
  • SciFinder Scholar (American Chemical Society)
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (Lund University)
  • PaperChem (Elsevier, Engineering Village)
  • Compendex (Elsevier, Engineering Village)
  • Academic Search Complete (EBSCO Industries)
  • CAB Abstracts (EBSCO Industries)
  • Scopus (Elsevier)
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Peer-Review Policy

All research articles and scholarly review articles are subject to a peer review process. BioResources offers web-based submission and review of articles.


BioResources, a business unit of North Carolina State University, was started in 2006 with support from the College of Natural Resources and has received in-kind assistance both from the College and from the NC State Natural Resources Foundation.