NC State
  • Researchpp 1726-1739Phothisuwan, S., Matan, N., and Matan, N. (2021). "Controlled release of essential oil from a rubberwood box using activated carbon to extend the shelf life of strawberries and its possible mode of action," BioResources 16(1), 1726-1739. AbstractPDF

    The controlled release of bergamot oil was evaluated from rubberwood boxes containing activated carbon and bergamot oil. Rubberwood boxes impregnated with different concentrations of bergamot oil (50, 100, and 300 µg g−1) with and without activated carbon were prepared. The treated rubberwood boxes were utilized to store strawberries at 6 °C for 21 d, while boxes with only activated carbon were used as a control. The inhibitory effects relative to Botrytis cinerea growth and quality of the strawberries after storage in rubberwood box were investigated. The microstructure of the rubberwood was evaluated via scanning electron microscopy. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to quantify the volatile compounds. The rubberwood boxes with activated carbon and 100 µg g−1 of bergamot oil were found to inhibit Botrytis cinerea growth on strawberries and extend their shelf life for at least 21 d. Compared to rubberwood boxes without activated carbon, activated carbon was able to retard the release of bergamot oil into the system, yielding increased strawberry quality. Releasing less bioactive components from bergamot oil could decrease undesirable effects on strawberries, e.g., tissue, weight loss, flavour, and colour changes.

  • Researchpp 1740-1756Wang, R., Yu, J., Wang, T., Wang, T., and Li, X. (2021). "Experimental study on molding technology for a mixture of corn straw and cow manure," BioResources 16(1), 1740-1756. AbstractPDF

    To improve the comprehensive utilization of planting and breeding waste resources, corn straw and cow manure were used as raw materials for exploring the molding process parameters for preparing agricultural fertilizers via compression after mixing. The pressure, compression speed, and holding time were the experimental factors, while the block drainage, compression ratio, and dimensional stability were used as evaluation indicators. This study analyzed the influence of various factors on the quality evaluation index of the formed blocks. The results show that the best factor ranges were as follows: a pressure of 15 kN to 24 kN, a compression speed of 200 mm/min to 400 mm/min, and a holding time of 30 s to 60 s. A ternary quadratic regression and rotating-combination test design was used to optimize the combination of forming parameters as well as performing test verification. The formed block yielded the following results: a block drainage of 6.29%, a compression ratio of 3.37, a dimensional stability of 86.5%, a pressure of 23.9 kN, a compression speed of 276 mm/min, and a holding time of 53.1 s. These results can provide a reference for the molding process and equipment development of corn straw and cow manure mixed fertilizer.

  • Researchpp 1757-1771Melicherčík, J., Krilek, J., Kováč, J., and Harvánek, P. (2021). "Influence of knife geometry on selected factors pertaining to the delimbing process," BioResources 16(1), 1757-1771. AbstractPDF

    Cutting mechanisms and the cutting force are the focus of this article. The cutting force can be determined theoretically or mathematically by statistical analysis. In this work, the cutting speed was compared when changing the diameter of the test wood and when using the three types of angular geometry of delimbing knives. Experimental measurements were conducted on a self-designed experimental pneumatic stand. Empirical relationships and values from the scientific literature were used to determine the input parameters. Based on a regression analysis, conclusions were drawn relative to factors affecting the process of delimbing. The angular geometry of the delimbing knife plays a significant role in the delimbing process. The thicker the knife, the higher the energy consumption in the cutting process and the poorer the quality of the cutting surface of the wood. The quality of chipless separation timber was found to depend on the cutting speed, and the optimal speed was 2.0 m s-1.

  • Researchpp 1772-1786Einollahi, Y., Hemmasi, A. H., Khademi Eslam, H., Ghasemi, E., and Talaeipour, M. (2021). "The effect of different mineral fillers on starch/rice husk composite properties," BioResources 16(1), 1772-1786. AbstractPDF

    The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of producing biodegradable thermoplastic starch rice-husk composites. The effect of different types of mineral fillers on the various properties of thermoplastic starch composites filled with rice-husk flour, an agricultural waste residue, was studied. The mineral fillers aluminum trihydrate (ATH), magnesium dihydroxide (MDH), nanoparticulate MDH, and nanoclay were studied. It was found that the addition of the mineral fillers and especially nanofillers improved the dimensional stability and the mechanical properties of the composites, while decreasing their biodegradability. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that substituting mineral fillers for some part of the lignocellulosic component increased the extents of weight-loss in the first and second steps, but decreased the weight-loss in the last step. This substitution also led to a slight decrease in the thermal decomposition temperatures at the curve peaks.

  • Researchpp 1787-1797Takahashi, S., Uraki, Y.,and Yamada, T. (2021). "Effect of ozone treatment on softwood soda lignin-based water reducer performance for concrete," BioResources 16(1), 1787-1797. AbstractPDF

    A lignin-based water reducer for concrete was prepared from softwood soda lignin. The soda lignin and the lignin-polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative were modified with ozone to improve their performance as water reducers. The performance of ozone-treated soda lignin was superior than untreated soda lignin and commercial lignosulfonate-type water reducers in the mortar flow test. The soda lignin treated with a high ozone charge showed better performance than lignin treated with a low ozone charge. The ozone treatment improved the performance of the lignin-PEG derivative water reducer as well. The lignin-PEG derivative water reducer with a longer PEG chain length showed better performance than that of the shorter PEG chain. The zeta potential of cement suspension with the ozone-treated soda lignin showed a higher negative value than the untreated soda lignin. The data of zeta potential analysis suggested that the electrostatic repulsion force of cement particles with the ozone-treated lignin would be larger than the untreated lignin.

  • Researchpp 1798-1815Kamarudin, N., Awang Biak, D. R., Zainal Abidin, Z., Cardona, F., and Sapuan, S. M. (2021). "Dissolution of condensed tannin powder-based polyphenolic compound in water-glycerol-acid solution," BioResources 16(1), 1798-1815. AbstractPDF

    Dissolution of polyphenolic compounds from condensed tannins powder from wattle species was carried out using water-glycerol mixtures and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. The study focused on parameters that can be adjusted to maximize the dissolution. The parameters of the dissolution process (mass of glycerol, mass of tannin powder, temperature and stirring time) were screened using a one factor at a time (OFAT) technique, while the optimum conditions were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). Effects of the mass of glycerol, mass of tannin powder, temperature, and stirring time used on the percentage of dissolved tannin residue was apparent. The amount of undissolved tannin was used as the direct measurement in this study since there is no established method available to test tannin dissolution in water-glycerol-acid solution. The result from RSM based on 30 experimental sets showed that the lowest undissolved tannin powder value was 10% when 75 grams of tannin powder was mixed with 13.56 grams of glycerol, 86.44 grams of water, and 1.00 grams of sulphuric acid, at 75 °C temperature and 44.13 minutes stirring time.

  • Researchpp 1816-1824Hassan, N., Li Wen, T., Khairil Anwar, N. A. K., and Idris, A. (2021). "Ionic solution pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce sugars," BioResources 16(1), 1816-1824. AbstractPDF

    Ferric (III) chloride, when prepared as an ionic solution, was used to pretreat oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) before undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis to convert into value-added products. The pretreatment was assisted with microwave irradiation to improve the degradation of recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic materials with minimum time. The effects of salt concentration, temperature, and duration of pretreatment on the chemical composition of OPEFB and total reducing sugar (TRS) yield were investigated. The results revealed that the best pretreatment occurred at pretreatment time of 10 min, 100 °C, and ferric chloride concentration of 10 w/v%. The TRS yield achieved using the pretreated OPEFB was approximately 0.485 g/g, which was three times higher than the non-pretreated OPEFB, which was only 0.154 g/g. Thus, the ionic solution pretreatment method is a promising alternative for replacing other pretreatment methods.

  • Researchpp 1842-1853Mirski, R., Wieruszewski, M., Trociński, A., Kawalerczyk, J., and Łabęda, K. (2021). "Elastic moduli of butt-end logs and the variable knots distribution in Scots pine from Western Poland," BioResources 16(1), 1842-1853. AbstractPDF

    In studies on Polish pine wood, the parameters determining its usefulness for processing are highly variable. In contrast, international studies on the optimum utilization of coniferous sawn wood describes its visual features as those indicating the distribution of defects and their impact on the selected mechanical and physical properties of sawn wood. Knottiness is one of the qualitative properties of sawn wood that is essential for wood grading. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between variable knots and their soundness on the one hand and their selected strength parameters on the other. One of the basic issues of this work includes structural timber optimization. For Polish sawn wood, these indicators are still relatively new. The study material involved edged butt-end log lumber from a 120-year-old forest stand. The results confirmed a correlation between knots frequency and modulus of elasticity. The correlation was strong, indicating that sound knots play a major role in the process of the strength assessments. The study did not demonstrate a significant share of rotten knots and their effect on strength.

  • Researchpp 1854-1862Gong, C., Ni, J.-P., Fan, S.-J., Zhang, Y., Yang, B., Su, Z.-H., and Tian, C. (2021). "Value-added utilization of caustic soda lye from cold caustic extraction process in the pulp mill," BioResources 16(1), 1854-1862.AbstractPDF

    Three approaches were examined for the reutilization of cold caustic extraction (CCE) lye. The term CCE lye refers here to the used NaOH solution with relatively high alkali content, which could be wasted if not reused properly. The results showed that CCE lye can be effectively applied in deinking, alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching, and oxygen delignification processes. The CCE lye improved the physical strength of the dried sheet of pulp, as the tensile index increased by 17.9% to 40.5%, the tear index increased by 2.9% to 22.2%, and the burst index increased by 10.5% to 41.0%. The results demonstrated the feasibility of integrating the CCE process of dissolving pulp production with regular pulping and bleaching processes.

  • Researchpp 1863-1874Wang, H., Wu, P., Xue, D., and Ma, Y. (2021). "Effect of vibration frequency on the vibration-assisted densification for alfalfa," BioResources 16(1), 1863-1874.AbstractPDF

    Densifying alfalfa into briquettes is one of the effective ways to increase its density and reduce the cost of storage and transportation. To explore the influence of vibration frequency on alfalfa briquetting, vibration-assisted compression tests with six vibration frequencies of 0, 9.52, 15.56, 21.24, 27.50, and 33.44 Hz were carried out. The results showed that the compression with vibration could reduce the maximum forming pressure and the energy consumption. The quality of alfalfa briquettes was improved compared with the compression without vibration. Within the range of test, when the vibration frequency was 21.24 Hz, the maximum pressure was the minimum, which was 5.83 MPa. In addition, the specific energy consumption was the lowest, which was 1374 J/g/cm3. The experimental results provided a basis for determining the optimum vibration parameters of alfalfa compression.