NC State
  • Editorialpp 7309-7312Liu, W., Liu, H., Liu, K., Du, H., Liu, Y., and Si, C. (2020). "Paper-based products as promising substitutes for plastics in the context of bans on non-biodegradables," BioRes. 15(4), 7309-7312.AbstractArticlePDF

    As a global environmental problem, plastic pollution has attracted worldwide attention. Plastic wastes not only disrupt ecosystems and biodiversity, but they also threaten human life and health. Countries around the world have enacted regulations in recent years to limit the use of plastics. Paper products have been proposed as promising substitutes for plastics, which undoubtedly brings unprecedented opportunities to the pulp and paper industry. However, paper products have some deficiencies in replacing certain plastic products. Research and development to improve paper properties and reduce production costs is needed to meet such challenges.

  • Editorialpp 7313-7314Nie, J., Song, S., and Liang, J. (2020). "Gels serving as carriers for functional fillers and facilitating novel composite paper production," BioRes. 15(4), 7313-7314.AbstractArticlePDF

    Functional fillers can facilitate the development of novel composite paper products for specific end uses. But using functional components as fillers by direct addition to the fiber suspension may fall short of the desired goals. The functional filler may fail to be efficiently retained. Gels can serve as carriers of functional paper fillers by coupling with them during in-situ synthesis and the gelation process. This strategy is favorable for the effective utilization of functional paper fillers, without hampering the intrinsic properties of paper. Additional merits of this strategy include versatility and compatibility with existing paper-making processes.

  • Editorialpp 7315-7318Elshenawi, D. M. and Wang, Y. (2020). "How to protect factory workers from COVID-19?" BioRes. 15(4), 7315-7318.AbstractArticlePDF

    Coronavirus has become a very serious global health problem. Since December 2019, a number of new cases of patients with pneumonia caused by the Coronavirus disease have been found in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. With the global spread of the epidemic, other types of cases have been found in other regions of China and abroad. Factory workers play an important and essential role in the production of goods needed by society. Protecting them is essential to maintain the stability of factory productivity. This editorial provides guidance in how to protect factory workers from COVID-19 infection.

  • Researchpp 7319-7329Kerekes, R., McDonald, D., and Zhao, J. (2020). "Perspectives on deriving mathematical models in pulp and paper science," BioRes. 15(4), 7319-7329.AbstractArticlePDF

    Mathematical modelling is a powerful tool in science. Causal mathematical models based on a clear picture of how key variables interact enable a deeper understanding of a given situation and provide reliable predictions. This is a classic approach in science. Unfortunately, this approach is declining in pulp and paper-related research in favour of simply reporting experimental data. The lack of a framework provided by a model diminishes the value of much experimental work. Therefore, the increased use of mathematical models is encouraged, and this approach is illustrated via several practical examples from our work.

  • Researchpp 7330-7341Fabisiak, E., Fabisiak, B., and Krauss, A. (2020). "Radial variation in tracheid lengths in dominant trees of selected coniferous species," BioRes. 15(4), 7330-7341.AbstractArticlePDF

    The radial variation was examined for tracheid lengths of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood from dominant trees coming from an even-aged stand, and growing under identical forest site and climatic conditions. The measurements were completed on macerated material. The variation of tracheid lengths in annual rings from the core to the bark was used for determination of the border between the juvenile and mature wood in the trunk cross-section. The boundary age between the juvenile and mature wood zones established for the examined species was comparable, as it was 25 annual rings for Scots pine and 29 for European larch and for Norway spruce. In the juvenile zone, the tracheid lengths increased 2.2-fold in Norway spruce wood, while in Scots pine and European larch wood it was approximately 1.7-fold. By contrast, in the mature wood zone the tracheid lengths was stabilized at a certain level, showing slight fluctuations. The differences in the tracheids length of early and late wood in the examined annual rings were also determined, and it was established that for the majority of annual rings they are statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • Researchpp 7342-7356Liu, Y., Wang, S., Zhou, H., Li, X., Duan, L., Chen, S., Li, S., Zhang, L., and Zhang, A. (2020). "Simultaneous removal of methyl orange and Cr(VI) using polyethyleneimine-modified corncob-derived carbon material," BioRes. 15(4), 7342-7356.AbstractArticlePDF

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified corncob-derived carbon material (CCM) was prepared by the simple wet-impregnation technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nitrogen isothermal adsorption/desorption measurements were used to compare the structural differences between the CCM and the PEI-modified CCM (PEI-CCM). In the single-pollutant removal experiment, the PEI-CCM showed high adsorption capacities for methyl orange (MO) and Cr(VI). However, the CCM only showed high adsorption capacity for MO. Moreover, the PEI-CCM exhibited high removal efficiencies in the simultaneous removal of MO and Cr(VI), with final removal efficiencies of 100% and 95%, respectively. The reusability experiment of PEI-CCM indicated that, after four recycles, PEI-CCM maintained high performance with the removal efficiency of MO and Cr(VI) decreased less than 3% and 16%, respectively. The prepared PEI-CCM could be a high-performance adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of MO and Cr(VI) from water containing multiple pollutants.

  • Researchpp 7357-7373Han, C., Wang, X., Ni, Z., Ni, Y., Huan, W., Lv, Y., and Bai, S. (2020). "Effects of nanocellulose on alginate/gelatin bio-inks for extrusion-based 3D printing," BioRes. 15(4), 7357-7373.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cellulose nanofibers (NFC) have attracted special attention in the field of extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting due to their good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, and outstanding shear-thinning property. In this study, by mixing cellulose nanofibers suspension with sodium alginate (SA) and gelatin (GEL) solution, five groups of composite bio-inks with different NFC concentrations were prepared. The effects of NFC on the performance of the SA/GEL matrix hydrogels were analyzed by morphological observation, rheological property testing, mechanical property testing, swelling property testing, and printability analysis. The rheological results showed that the addition of NFC noticeably increased the viscosity of biological inks with low shear rates; therefore, the printed scaffolds maintained their structure better during the 3D printing process. After crosslinking with calcium chloride (CaCl2), the fidelity of the NFC/SA/GEL composite hydrogel structure was better than that of the SA/GEL hydrogel. Moreover, the structural properties were strengthened, and the mechanical stabilities of the composite hydrogels improved when NFC was added. Therefore, this study provided an easy way to improve the printability of extrusion-based 3D printing and the potential use of nanocellulose.

  • Researchpp 7374-7389Guo, D., Zhang, J., Sha, L., Liu, B., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., and Xue, G. (2020). "Preparation and characterization of lignin-TiO2 UV-shielding composite material by induced synthesis with nanofibrillated cellulose," BioRes. 15(4), 7374-7389.AbstractArticlePDF

    It is desirable to develop biodegradable ultraviolet (UV)-shielding materials from renewable resources, as the demand for sustainability is ever increasing. In this work, a novel lignin-TiO2 UV-shielding composite was synthesized successfully via a hydrothermal method induced by nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Comprehensive characterization showed that the lignin-TiO2@NFC composite induced by NFC had good nanoparticle size, shape, and thermal stability. The sunscreen performance of lignin-TiO2@NFC was investigated via mixture with unmodified hand cream. The UV-visible (vis) transmission spectra results revealed that the unmodified cream with 10 wt% lignin-TiO2@NFC absorbed approximately 90% of UV light in the full UV band (200 nm to 400 nm), which indicated that lignin-TiO2@NFC had a good UV-shielding ability.

  • Researchpp 7390-7403Christy, E. O., Soemarno, S., Sumarlan, S. H., and Soehardjono, A. (2020). "Pilot study on low-density binderless bark particleboards manufacture from gelam wood (Melaleuca sp.) bark," BioRes. 15(4), 7390-7403.AbstractArticlePDF

    The production of low-density binderless bark particleboards (LDBBP) from gelam wood bark (GWB) using a hot pressing method at low temperature (128 °C) and pressure (30 kg × cm-2) was explored by examining their physical properties according to SNI 03-2105-2006 (2006). They were also examined via scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) observation. The LDBBPs were manufactured using two types of GWB particles: (1) bark waste that was peeled off of small-diameter trees < 10 cm (A) and, (2) bark that was directly peeled off from a standing tree with an average diameter of 10 cm to 15 cm (B). Results showed that the average values of the physical properties of LDBBP(A) and LDBBP(B) met the SNI 03-2105-2006 (2006) requirements in terms of density, moisture content, and thickness swelling after being immersed for 24 h for particleboard type 24-10 and type 17.5-10.5 with maximum thickness swelling requirement 20%. However, they failed to meet the maximum thickness swelling criterion of 12% for other particleboard types. Subsequent internal morphology observation using SEM indicated the presence of cracks on LDBBP (A), so only LDBBP (B) could be manufactured without delamination. Gelam bark could potentially be used to produce non-adhesive particleboards.

  • Researchpp 7404-7419Zuber, S., Hashikin, N., Mohd Yusof, M., and Hashim, R. (2020). "Investigation on suitable coating material for soy-lignin bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard for medical physics applications," BioRes. 15(4), 7404-7419.AbstractArticlePDF

    A phantom material was prepared with different percentages of soy-lignin bonded with Rhizophora spp. particleboard and different coating materials, including epoxy resin, gloss wood finish, and a mixture of epoxy resin and gloss wood finish. A set of samples without coating was prepared for comparison. Each sample was bonded with 6% or 12% soy-lignin adhesives. The aim was to investigate the suitability of different coating materials at low energy range. The water absorption, thickness swelling, surface roughness, and mass attenuation coefficients of the samples with various coating materials were examined. Water absorption and thickness swelling of the samples coated with different coating materials followed a similar trend, but only one sample (coated with gloss wood finish) was within the recommended value of 12% according to JIS A 5908 (2003). Surface roughness testing revealed that the sample coated with gloss finish was smoother than other coated and non-coated samples. The mass attenuation coefficient of the sample coated with gloss finish was similar to that of water, indicating its suitability as a coating material for the Rhizophora spp. particleboard in medical physics applications.