NC State
  • Researchpp 1818-1835Mihailovic, V., Miric-Milosavljevic, M., Djurkovic, M., Mladenovic, G., Milosevic, M., and Trajkovic, I. (2022). "Loading rate effects on MOE and MOR distributions in testing of small clear beech wood specimens," BioResources 17(1), 1818-1835.AbstractArticlePDF

    Distributions of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were characterized at three loading rates for small clear beech specimens in static bending. The correlation between MOE and MOR for all three loading rates was significant, but it weakened with increasing load rates. The analysis of the characteristics of empirical distributions, as well as the preliminary selection of the theoretical distributions for MOE and MOR, were performed on the basis of L-moments and L-moment diagrams. According to the standard for testing small specimens, MOE and MOR are determined as the arithmetic mean of the sample. Usage of the arithmetic mean is justified when the analyzed quantity is symmetrically distributed. It was found that the distribution of MOE and MOR is not always symmetric. The loading rate influences the shapes of the MOE and MOR empirical distributions, and consequently the choice of theoretical distribution. The general extreme value distribution stood out as the best one for both MOE and MOR, regardless of the loading rate, and the second overall ranked distribution is the three-parameter Weibull distribution. The loading rate affected the value of the fifth percentile in MOR, when determined from both the empirical and theoretical distributions.

  • Researchpp 1836-1854Alvarez Valverde, M., Horvath, L., and Bouldin, J. (2022). "Wood pallet performance analysis with palletized drums in distribution and warehousing," BioResources 17(1), 1836-1854.AbstractArticlePDF

    As an integral part of the supply chain, wooden pallets are produced in large quantities, with 849 million new and recycled wooden pallets being manufactured annually in the industry. Pallets are currently designed using a uniformly distributed load to determine the load capacity. This highly generalized approach often leads to overdesign and increased material utilization. Due to a phenomenon called load bridging, when discrete packages such as corrugated boxes or industrial drums are shipped on a pallet, the weight of the load tends to distribute unevenly. This can lead to an increased load capacity for the pallet. Industrial drums are commonly used to transport large amounts of liquids and chemicals; however, their load bridging effect has not been previously researched. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 55-gallon drums on the pressure distribution and deflection of stringer class wooden pallets using multiple support conditions and pallet designs. Results of the study indicated that loading pallets with drums significantly reduces the deflection of the pallet in all support conditions when compared to a uniformly distributed load. It was also observed that plastic and metal drums distributed their load to the pallets differently, which resulted in significantly different load bridging effects for each drum type.

  • Researchpp 1855-1867Filgueira Amorim França, T. S., Nistal França, F. J., Seale, R., Ross, R. J., and Shmulsky, R. (2022). "Flexural properties of visually graded southern pine 2x4 and 2x6 structural lumber," BioResources 17(1), 1855-1867.AbstractArticlePDF

    Flexural properties of visually graded southern pine structural lumber were evaluated. Several grade controlling characteristics were considered relative to bending properties and compared with current design values. A total of 751 southern pine lumber specimens were obtained from a broad spectrum of regions in the southeastern United States. Visually graded No. 2, nominally two inch thick specimens, in four and six inch widths, were obtained from commercial sawmills. All specimens were evaluated by a certified grader in the laboratory. Actual dimensions, weight, and moisture content (MC) were measured. Growth and manufacturing related characteristics were identified and classified into two categories: strength reducing characteristics (SRC) and grade reducing characteristics (GRC). Specific gravity (SG), bending modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR), were determined for each specimen. The presence of knots was identified as the most significant SRC; their presence had the most significant impact on SG, MOE and MOR. For GRC, specimens with knots, warp and specimens that fell into the category none, were significantly lower in SG, MOE and MOR. MOE and the allowable design bending strength values yielded in this study met the current design value criteria for both widths tested.

  • Researchpp 1868-1880Wan Abdul Rahman, W., Md Yatim, A., Mansor Manshor, R., and Yuziah Mohd Yunus, N. (2022). "Performance of particleboard made with Neolamarckia cadamba, Leucaena leucocephala, and their 50:50 Admixtures," BioResources 17(1), 1868-1880.AbstractArticlePDF

    The performance of a particleboard seems to be related to the chemical constituents of the species and the size distribution the particles. Neolamarckia cadamba (NC) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) are fast growing species and good potential resources for particleboard production. This study examined the chemical contents of both species, as well as the mechanical and physical performance of particleboard made with 100% NC, 100% LL, and their 50:50 admixtures. High moisture resistance boards were prepared using melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF) at a content of 10, 12, and 14 %. The 30% extra buffering of LL translated to its lower performance for both mechanical and physical properties. The 50:50 admixtures provided enticing results, as it counteracts the impact of lowered performance of 100% LL. All boards passed the mechanical requirements of the BS EN 312 (2003) standard, but they did not meet the requirement for thickness swelling. The internal bond for cyclic test only failed for 100% LL with 10% resin added. With use of wax, the potential of improvement in swelling properties is possible.

  • Researchpp 1881-1891Cajova Kantova, N., Caja, A., Belany, P., Kolkova, Z., Hrabovsky, P., Hecko, D., and Micko, P. (2022). "Mechanical and energy properties of pellets formed from walnut shells blended with spruce sawdust," BioResources 17(1), 1881-1891.AbstractArticlePDF

    Various waste materials have energy potential. It is important to make use of this potential and prepare the product for further use by treating the waste. Treatments such as compressing waste into pellets leads to increasing the energy density of this fuel, which benefits transport and storage costs. However, low bulk density, high ash content, low-ash melting temperatures, and low calorific values of non-woody pellets can cause problems during their combustion. This article deals with the energy usage of walnut shells, which were blended with spruce sawdust in various amounts and compressed into pellets. The mechanical and energy properties of these were measured and compared with recommended or standardized values. The formed pellets met the quality limit for bulk density, ash content, moisture content, the content of nitrogen and sulfur, and net calorific value according to ISO 17225. However, low ash melting temperatures were noticed for pellets from pure walnut shells, and also lower mechanical durability for produced pellets with walnut shells contents higher than 10% were detected.

  • Researchpp 1892-1904Bandao-Antonio, J., and Diaz, J. M. A. (2022). "Sayote (Sechium edule) fiber isolated at varying acid hydrolysis time and reinforcement to starch/PVOH composite blends," BioResources 17(1), 1892-1904.AbstractArticlePDF

    The chemo-mechanical extraction of sayote (Sechium edule) fibers and their use as reinforcement to biodegradable starch/polyvinyl alcohol composite blends were studied. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed the removal of hemicelluloses from the fiber surface after 7 and 10 h of acid hydrolysis time. Scanning electron micrographs show the removal of surface impurities during chemical-mechanical treatment. There was a more exposed fiber surface after 7 and 10 h of acid hydrolysis time. However, fibers acid hydrolyzed for 10 h revealed the presence of more cracks on the fiber surface. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that 7 h acid hydrolyzed fiber had the highest relative crystallinity index of 64.9% as compared to the fiber that was acid hydrolyzed for 10 h with a relative crystallinity index of 58.6%. Both 7 h and 10 h acid hydrolyzed fibers gave 20% yield after extraction. The fiber that was hydrolyzed for 7 h was used as reinforcement to starch/polyvinyl alcohol composite and gave a bending and tensile strength of 5.36 MPa. The unreinforced composite gave a bending and tensile strength of 2.85 MPa. The scanning electron micrograph of the reinforced composite revealed a more homogeneous surface and lesser starch granule exposure as compared to the unreinforced composite with a rough and bumpy surface. The onset of degradation and carbonization of the fiber reinforced composite was seen at around 280 and 580 °C respectively.

  • Researchpp 1905-1915Zhang, D., Liu, H., Jin, Y., Pan, D., Yu, W., Lu, L., Lü, T., and Zhao, H. (2022). "The simultaneous and synergistic sorption of phenanthrene and cadmium using biomass derived from rice roots," BioResources 17(1), 1905-1915.AbstractArticlePDF

    Evaluating the sorption performance of coexisting phenanthrene and cadmium on rice roots is critical for a better understanding of plant sorption and uptake of combined pollutants. Batch sorption kinetics and isotherms of phenanthrene and cadmium on rice root biomass, as well as key factors in both single and binary systems, were evaluated to access any potential synergistic effects. Results showed that rice root biomass effectively and simultaneously removed phenanthrene and cadmium from aqueous solutions. The presence of a co-solute led to synergistic effects on the sorption, enhancing the affinity parameters, i.e., the Kd (linear model), from 2530 to 3970 L/kg for phenanthrene, and the KF (Freundlich model), from 640 to 777 L/kg for cadmium. The well fitted pseudo-second-order kinetics implied that the coexisting pollutants slowed the sorption rates, decreasing the sorption rate (k2) from 0.185 to 0.155 g/mg/min for phenanthrene and from 0.0361 to 0.00146 g/mg/min for cadmium. The results suggested that further studies should carefully evaluate the remediation and risk-assessment in rice-arable soil under combined pollution.

  • Researchpp 1916-1925Xu, S., Wu, S., Yu, C., Yin, Y., and Xuan, L. (2022). "Fiber characteristics and chemical composition of three Taxodium ‘Zhongshansa’ woods and pulping evaluation," BioResources 17(1), 1916-1925.AbstractArticlePDF

    Taxodium ‘Zhongshansa’ (T. ‘Zhongshansa’) is a hybrid cultivar of the Taxodium Rich. genus. The wood and fiber characteristics and wood chemical compositions of three T. ‘Zhongshansa’ wood specimens were analyzed and compared with their parents, Taxodium mucronatum (T. mucronatum) and Taxodium distichum (T. distichum). It was found that the wood density of the three T. ‘Zhongshansa’ hybrids were slightly lower than the densities of their parents. The average fiber length and length to width ratio of the three samples were similar and greater than their parents. Runkel ratios of the three T. ‘Zhongshansa’ hybrids was smaller than their patents. Compared to the parents, the extractives contents of the three T. ‘Zhongshansa’ hybrids hardly varied, while the lignin content was slightly lower. The result of the kraft cooking and bleaching of T.Z.502 indicated that with a cooking yield of 44.9%, the kappa number of the kraft pulp was 41.8. The T.Z.502 kraft pulp was easier to delignify via oxygen with alkali, and the brightness reached up to 76% ISO after an elemental chlorine free bleaching process. The results provide a reference for the application of T. ‘Zhongshansa’ wood in pulp and paper making in future.

  • Reviewpp 1926-1938Dlamini, L. C., Fakudze, S., Makombe, G. G., Muse, S., and Zhu, J. (2022). "Bamboo as a valuable resource and its utilization in historical and modern-day China," BioResources 17(1), 1926-1938.AbstractArticlePDF

    Due to some challenges related to the utilization of wood, such as long growth cycles and severe deforestation, the utilization of bamboo resources has attracted wide attention globally. Bamboo is characterized by remarkable strength and elasticity properties, minimal maintenance requirements, and a fast growth cycle, as it can reach maturity within three to five years. Moreover, bamboo is attractive as a sustainable resource owing to its excellent regeneration ability and high crop yield. A single cultivation of bamboo can remain existent for several years, and the plants can regenerate new shoots shortly after harvesting. Hence, the cultivation, management, trade, and utilization of eco-friendly bamboo resources have become of great importance. Currently, a larger proportion of the world’s bamboo forests and approximately 80% of the world’s bamboo species are found in east Asia, south Asia, and southeast Asia. China has the richest bamboo resources, with a total of 861 species from 43 genera. Specifically, bamboo forests in China cover a total area of approximately 6.73 million ha (approximately one-third of the world’s bamboo forests) scattered across different provinces, including Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Zhejiang, among others. Herein, this work reviewed the cultivation and utilization of bamboo resources in historical and modern China.

  • Reviewpp 1939-1961Luo, X., Zeng, B., Zhong, Y., and Chen, J. (2022). "Production and detoxification of inhibitors during the destruction of lignocellulose spatial structure," BioResources 17(1), 1939-1961.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that is widely abundant and can be used to produce biofuels such as methanol and ethanol. Because biofuels have the potential to alleviate shortages of energy in today’s world, they have attracted much research attention. The pretreatment of lignocellulose is an important step in the conversion of biomass products. The pretreatment can destroy the crosslinking effect of lignin and hemicellulose on cellulose, remove lignin, degrade hemicellulose, and change the crystal structure of cellulose. The reaction area between the enzyme and the substrate is enlarged, and the yield of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation products is significantly increased. Conventional pretreatment methods help convert lignocellulosic material to sugars, but the treatments also produce some inhibitors, which are mainly organic acids, aldehydes, phenols, and other substances. They may affect the subsequent saccharification and growth of fermentation microorganisms, thereby reducing the bioconversion of the lignocellulose. It is therefore necessary to take effective means of detoxification. This paper reviews lignocellulose pretreatment methods, with an emphasis on inhibitors and their management. A summary is provided of detoxification methods, and the future use of lignocellulosic biomass for fuels prospects.