NC State
  • Researchpp 630-637Bianchini, R., Catelani, G., Frino, E., Isaad, J., and Rolla, M. (2007). "Lactose to naturalize textile dyes," BioRes. 2(4), 630-637.AbstractPDF
    Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs) we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.
  • Researchpp 638-651Saarimaa, V. J., Pranovich, A. V., Sundberg, A. C., and Holmbom, B. R. (2007). "Isolation of pectic acids from bleached TMP water and aggregation of model and TMP pectic acids by calcium," BioRes. 2(4), 638-651.AbstractPDF
    Pectins are important structural elements in spruce fibres. Alkaline peroxide bleaching of spruce thermomechanical pulp (TMP) causes degradation and demethylation of pectins, yielding high-charge-density pectic acids. The pectic acids in fibres contribute strongly to the negative fibre charge, and the dissolved pectic acids increase the cationic demand of bleached TMP water. In this study, a method to isolate pectic acids from peroxide-bleached TMP pulp water is presented. The pectic acids were isolated and purified in good yield using a polyacrylate resin to remove lignin, a cellulose filter to remove galactoglucomannans (GGM), and an anion exchange resin to separate pectic acids from neutral carbohydrates. Salts and residual low-molar-mass carbohydrates were further removed from the isolated pectic acids by dialysis. The isolated pectic acids (>80% purity) had a low molar mass and a wide polydispersity (5.9 kDa, MW/MN 3.3). The aggregation and precipitation of the isolated pectic acids, as well as citrus fruit pectic acids with well-defined molar masses, by Ca2+-ions were studied. The molar mass of pectic acids was a key factor determining the precipitation of Ca2+-pectates. Pectic acids below 6 kDa were not precipitated by Ca2+, while higher molar masses led first to partial and then to complete precipitation. The precipitated Ca2+-pectates may impair paper machine runnability and paper quality.
  • Researchpp 652-670Lindfors, J., Salmi, J., Laine, J., and Stenius, P. (2007). "AKD and ASA model surfaces: Preparation and characterization," BioRes. 2(4), 652-670.AbstractPDF
    Model surfaces of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) and alkenyl succinic anhyd-ride (ASA) were prepared by casting and spin-coating methods. The surface chemical composition and surface topography were investigated by XPS, ellipsometry, AFM and contact angle studies. Spin-coating resulted in layered structure of AKD and ASA surfaces; the molecular layer thickness of both AKD and ASA was found to be ca. 2.5 nm. To achieve a covering surface layer, an average thickness of ca. 35 nm was required. The rms roughness of the created surfaces was 1 - 6 nm. Colloidal probe adhesion measurements were performed to verify that the roughness was in a range suitable for these measurements. The high reactivity of ASA with water generated stability problems with the ASA layers and it has to be recognized that surface force measurements with ASA in aqueous environment are very difficult, if not impossible. How-ever, surfaces created in this way were found to be useful in providing explanations of earlier ASA adhesion studies. The contact angle measurements on ASA layers also indicated that it might be possible to asses the hydrolysis rate issues through a set of similar measurements.
  • Researchpp 671-681Porankiewicz, B., Bermudez, J. C., and Tanaka, C. (2007). "Cutting forces by peripheral cutting of low density wood species," BioRes. 2(4), 671-681.AbstractPDF
    In this paper multifactor non-linear dependencies of cutting forces from several machining parameters for low density wood of Liriodendron tulipifera Linn., known as Yellow Poplar, and Cordia alliodora Ruiz. & Pav., known as laurel blanco wood or capa prieto, were evaluated from experimental matrices. In the analyzed relations there was evidence for several strong interactions, which have been graphically illustrated and discussed.
  • Researchpp 682-692Yang, Q., Zhan, H., Wang, S., Fu, S., and Li, K. (2007). "Bio-modification of eucalyptus chemithermo-mechanical pulp with different white-rot fungi," BioRes. 2(4), 682-692.AbstractPDF
    Modification of chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) by fungal treatment was investigated. Eucalyptus CTMP was treated with three different types of white-rot fungi, namely, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P.c-1767), Trametes hirsute 19-6 (T.h-19-6), and Trametes hirsute19-6w (T.h-19-6w), under a stationary culture condition. Pulp total weight loss, lignin loss, and cellulose loss were determined to compare the different enzymes secreted by the three fungal strains. Pulp physical strengths, optical properties, and bleachability after the fungal treatment were investigated to compare the effect of fungal treatment on the pulp quality improvement. The results show that lignin reduction by both T.h-19-6 and T.h-19-6 (w) was about twice as much as that by P.c-1767. However, the selectivity of T.h-19-6 (w) towards lignin over cellulose was only 0.82, while that of T.h-19-6 was as high as 4.43. After T.h-19-6 treatment, pulp tensile, tear, and internal bonding strength increased by about 27%, 38%, and 40%, respectively.
  • Researchpp 693-698Dwivedi, U. K., Ghosh, A., and Chand, N. (2007). "Abrasive wear behaviour of bamboo (dendrocalamus strictus) powder filled polyester composites," BioRes. 2(4), 693-698.AbstractPDF
    An experimental study was conducted to determine the abrasive wear behaviour of different weight percentage bamboo powder filled polyester composites under the multipass mode. The effect of bamboo powder concentration and sliding distance on the weight loss of composites has been analyzed. Worn surface have been analyzed to observe the mechanism of wear. The weight loss depends on bamboo powder concentration. The weight loss decreases with the increase of sliding distance. Samples having 20 weight percentage (wt%) of bamboo powder show the maximum weight loss during abrasion.
  • Researchpp 699-706Dobele, G., Urbanovich, I., Volpert, A., Kampars, V. and Samulis, E. (2007). "Fast pyrolysis - Effect of wood drying on the yield and properties of bio-oil," BioRes. 2(4), 699-706.AbstractPDF
    The composition and properties of the products of fast pyrolysis of hardwood, obtained in a two-chamber (drying and pyrolytic) ablation type reactor in the temperature range 450-600ºС, were investigated. It has been found that, upon the additional drying of wood at 200ºС and subsequent pyrolysis, the quality of bio-oil is improved owing to the decrease in the amount of water and acids. It has been shown that the increase of the drying temperature to 240ºС decreases the yield of the main product. Optimum parameters of the drying conditions and the temperature of the pyrolysis of wood, at which the bio-oil yield exceeds 60% and its calorific value makes up 17-20 МJ/kg, have been determined.
  • Reviewpp 707-738Taherzadeh, M. J., and Karimi, K. (2007). "Enzyme-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review," BioRes. 2(4), 707-738.AbstractPDF
    This article reviews developments in the technology for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials by “enzymatic” processes. Several methods of pretreatment of lignocelluloses are discussed, where the crystalline structure of lignocelluloses is opened up, making them more accessible to the cellulase enzymes. The characteristics of these enzymes and important factors in enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose and hemicellulose to cellobiose, glucose, and other sugars are discussed. Different strategies are then described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, including separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (NSSF), simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Furthermore, the by-products in ethanol from lignocellulosic materials, wastewater treatment, commercial status, and energy production and integration are reviewed.
  • Reviewpp 739-788Hubbe, M. A., Venditti, R. A., and Rojas, O. J. (2007). "What happens to cellulosic fibers during papermaking and recycling? A review," BioRes. 2(4), 739-788.AbstractPDF
    Both reversible and irreversible changes take place as cellulosic fibers are manufactured into paper products one or more times. This review considers both physical and chemical changes. It is proposed that by understanding these changes one can make better use of cellulosic fibers at various stages of their life cycles, achieving a broad range of paper performance characteristics. Some of the changes that occur as a result of recycling are inherent to the fibers themselves. Other changes may result from the presence of various contaminants associated with the fibers as a result of manufacturing processes and uses. The former category includes an expected loss of swelling ability and decreased wet-flexibility, especially after kraft fibers are dried. The latter category includes effects of inks, de-inking agents, stickies, and additives used during previous cycles of papermaking.
  • Reviewpp 789-811Oltean, L., Teischinger, A., and Hansmann, C. (2007). "Influence of temperature on cracking and mechanical properties of wood during wood drying - A review," BioRes. 2(4), 789-811.AbstractPDF
    The occurrence of cracks and loss of mechanical properties are major problems in wood drying, and careful control of drying conditions is necessary in order to avoid this form of defects. Wood drying at different temperatures, especially high temperatures, has gained much interest in the last several decades. Some solutions for minimizing drying defects, such as cracks and decrease of mechanical properties due to the increase of drying rates, decrease of drying time and thus cost, must be acknowledged and understood. The present review tries to summarize the influence of temperature during kiln drying on the mechanical properties of wood and on the occurrence of cracks.