NC State
  • Researchpp 4875-4888Ozgenc, O., Hiziroglu, S., and Yildiz, U. C. (2012). "Weathering properties of wood species treated with different coating applications," BioRes. 7(4), 4875-4888.AbstractArticlePDF

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the discoloration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) specimens treated with different chemicals and surface coated with different UV absorbers before being subjected to artificial weathering. The results showed that the influence of coatings containing UV absorbers (UV screeners micronized TiO2 and UVA of hydroxyphenyl-s-triazine types) were similar to each other. The UV screener TiO2 led to the least discoloration of the coated wood surface, closely followed by the UVA of hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines (HPT). The color stability was determined to be better for pine wood treated with micronized copper preservative coated with UV absorber, in comparison to when it was only coated with UV absorbers and then subjected to weathering. Microscopic observation revealed that the clear-coats penetration behavior was different in wood preservative-treated and in untreated wood of Scots pine, which has various extractives. However, the color stability and coating penetration was nearly the same in beech wood treated with preservatives and in untreated beech wood. We provide an explanation for why these effects occurred and discuss the implications of our findings for the development of weather-resistant wood materials.

  • Researchpp 4889-4901Zhao, Q., Sun, D., Wang, Z., Pu, J., Jin, X., and Xing, M. (2012). "Effects of different activation processes on H2O2/TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp," BioRes. 7(4), 4889-4901.AbstractArticlePDF

    Tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used as an activator in H2O2 bleaching to improve bleaching efficiency. The present work was aimed at confirming different activations for various H2O2/TAED bleaching processes, including the addition of acetic anhydride and the step-addition of sodium hydroxide. The results showed that an acetic anhydride dosage of 1%, an acetic anhydride treatment time of 10 min, and an addition time of 45 min were the optimal treatment conditions. The optimum processes of NaOH step-addition treatment in H2O2 bleaching and in H2O2/TAED bleaching also were confirmed, respectively. The o-quinone contents of H2O2 bleached lignin and H2O2/TAED bleached lignin were determined. The results indicated that H2O2/TAED bleached lignin has a lower o-quinone content than H2O2 bleached lignin, which is one of the reasons for the H2O2/TAED bleaching process having better bleaching efficiency than H2O2 bleaching.

  • Researchpp 4902-4913Hong, B., Xue, G., Weng, L., and Guo, X. (2012). "Pretreatment of moso bamboo with dilute phosphoric acid," BioRes. 7(4), 4902-4913.AbstractArticlePDF

    Dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of moso bamboo materials was studied for producing high quality dissolving pulp for textile applications. The dynamics of dilute acid pretreatment were considered. The Saeman model was found to describe well the acid hydrolysis of moso bamboo hemicelluloses to their monomers under different temperatures and different dilute phosphoric acid concentrations. The initial degradation rate of hemicelluloses was much higher than its subsequent degradation rate, and the xylose generation rate increased with increasing temperature. The change rule of the pentose extraction rate was considered along with the pretreatment factor (P factor). Optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions were 170 °C and 45 minutes. Based on the optimum conditions and a mass balance of sugars, a weight loss of 26.5% of the solid and liquid fractions combined was observed after the pretreatment. SEM results revealed that the moso bamboo fibers surfaces and cell wall were damaged. With the surface area increasing, the accessible pore areas also increased. At the same time, the crystallinity of the cellulose was reduced, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment.

  • Researchpp 4914-4925Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., and Fang, Z. (2012). "Design, synthesis, and application of novel flame retardants derived from biomass," BioRes. 7(4), 4914-4925.AbstractArticlePDF

    Biomass represents an abundant and relatively low cost carbon resource that can be utilized to produce platform chemicals such as levulinic acid. Novel oligomeric flame retardants, the poly(MDP-PDCP-MA)s (PMPMs), were designed and synthesized using diphenolic acid as one of the raw materials, which is derived from levulinic acid. To change the molar ratio of reactants, a series of PMPM samples with different nitrogen contents were obtained and characterized by FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The solubility test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated a good solvent-resistant property and thermal stability. The flame retardancy and thermal behavior of ABS with 30% loading of different PMPM samples were investigated by limiting oxygen index test (LOI), TGA, and microscale combustion colorimeter (MCC). The results showed that PMPMs are effective charring agents that can increase the thermal stability and flame retardancy of ABS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the residue of ABS/PMPM blends indicated the compact charred layer formed was responsible for improving the thermal stability and char yield of ABS with low nitrogen content in PMPM-1 flame retardant.

  • Researchpp 4926-4937Wu, W.-B., Gu, J., Jing, Y., Zhou, X.-F., and Dai, H.-Q. (2012). "Preparation and retention performance of crosslinked and hydrophobically associating cationic polyacrylamide," BioRes. 7(4), 4926-4937.AbstractArticlePDF

    “Water-in-water” emulsions of cross-linked and hydrophobically associating cationic polyacrylamide (CHCPAM) with cationic groups (methacrylatoethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, DMC), hydrophobic groups (octadecyl methacrylate, OA), and cross-linked groups (N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide, MBA) were prepared by dispersion polymerization. The structure of the copolymer was confirmed by FTIR and 1HNMR analyses. The prepared “water-in-water” emulsions possessed high solids content, low viscosity, good stability, and water solubility. Optical microscope images showed that the diameters of most emulsion particles were several microns. Appropriate concentrations of OA and MBA for a stable dispersion system were in the range of 0 to 0.1 wt% and 0 to 50 ppm. “Water-in-water” emulsions of CHCPAM can be directly used as a retention aid without further processing. They have a comparative retention rate, better anti-shearing ability, and better salt resistance, compared to commercial CPAM. The cross-linked structure of CHCPAM contributed to the anti-shearing ability. Intermolecular and intramolecular hydrophobic association of CHCPAM was the most important factor in improving resistance to salt.

  • Researchpp 4938-4951de los Santos-Villalobos, S., Hernández-Rodríguez, L. E., Villaseñor-Ortega, F., and Peña-Cabriales, J. J. (2012). "Production of Trichoderma asperellum T8a spores by a "home-made" solid-state fermentation of mango industrial wastes," BioRes. 7(4), 4938-4951.AbstractArticlePDF

    Dry wastes (dw) generated in processing mangoes, composed (in dry weight) mainly of soluble carbohydrates (71 ± 2%) and fiber (16 ± 1%), were evaluated as substrates in a “home-made” solid-state fermentation (using polyurethane foam as inert support matrix, various C:N ratios, moisture contents, and incubation periods) of Trichoderma asperellum T8a, a promising biological control agent against the mango pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (causal agent of anthracnose). Highest spore production (2.5 x 106 up to 76 ± 3 x 108 spores g-1 dw) occurred after 8 days of incubation [at 28 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 85 ± 5%, photoperiod of 12h (540 Lux) – 12h (20 Lux)] at a C:N ratio of 26, and a moisture content of 78%. Scanning electron microscopy showed that T. asperellum T8a was able to grow on mango industrial wastes and into polyurethane foam. The extensive growth can be related to cellulases secreted by this fungus, liberating glucose from these wastes to its growth. Most (94 ± 1%) of the spores grown on mango industrial wastes survived storage at 4 °C for 7 days and were equally effective as those grown on potato dextrose agar medium (86 ± 4% viable) in biological control tests against C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456. Results indicate the potential use of mango industrial wastes as substrates to produce T. asperellum T8a spores in situ (mango orchards) under a cheap “home-made” solid-state fermentation, reducing problems associated with wastes disposal and permitting the production of a biological control agent against C. gloeosporioides.

  • Researchpp 4952-4964Qian, Y., Qin, Z., Vu, N.-M., Tong, G., and Chin, Y. C. F. (2012). "Comparison of nanocrystals from tempo oxidation of bamboo, softwood, and cotton linter fibers with ultrasonic-assisted process," BioRes. 7(4), 4952-4964.AbstractArticlePDF

    Fully bleached kraft bamboo pulp (BPFs), fully bleached kraft softwood pulp (SPFs), and bleached cotton linter pulp (CPFs), which have different crystallinities, were oxidized in the TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system with ultrasonic treatment for producing nanocrystals. The carboxylate content of nanocrystals made from BPFs, SPFs, and CPFs were 2.10, 2.02, and 1.66 mmol/g, respectively. Nanocrystals of BPFs and SPFs had widths of 5 to 15 nm and lengths of 400 to 800 nm. The length and width of CPFs nanocrystals were 200 to 400 nm and 15 to 25 nm. The oxidizing rates of BPFs, SPFs, and CPFs were different. These differences could be attributed to crystallinity. Crystallinity affected microstructures, chemical process, and the efficiency of ultrasonication. Crystallinity also shaped the nanocrystals, since nanocrystals consist of the residual crystalline regions after chemical oxidation and ultrasonication. Fibers of lower crystallinity (such as bamboo) showed a higher reactivity, and the nanocrystals made from low crystallinity materials were longer, thinner, more rapidly formed, and required less energy in their preparation.

  • Researchpp 4965-4975Chen, Y., Huang, M., Chen, W., and Huang, B. (2012). "Adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution using activated carbon derived from mangosteen peel," BioRes. 7(4), 4965-4975.AbstractArticlePDF

    Effects of the mixing method of K2CO3 with the source biomass and thermal history on the properties of the mangosteen peel activated carbons (MSACs) were investigated. The one-step impregnation activation process was found to be remarkably effective in increasing the mesoporosity of the activated carbon (L-MSAC) as well as BET surface area (SBET) and total pore volume, compared to the solid-solid dry mixing method in a two-stage process. The better fit of Langmuir isotherm indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of Cu(II) to be 21.74 mg·g-1 for L-MSAC, which makes it a promising adsorbent for the removal of copper ion from aqueous solutions.

  • Researchpp 4976-4993van Dyk, J. S., Low Ah Kee, N., Frost, C. L., and Pletschke, B. I. (2012). "Extracellular polysaccharide production in Bacillus licheniformis SVD1 and its immunomodulatory effect," BioRes. 7(4), 4976-4993.AbstractArticlePDF

    Bacillus licheniformis SVD1 exhibited highest production of three different polysaccharides when sucrose was used as the carbon source for polysaccharide production and yeast extract was used as the nitrogen source. Polysaccharides were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GCMS), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the topography of the cells and polysaccharides. The cell-associated polysaccharides were composed of galactose, while two different polysaccharides were present in the extracellular medium, one of 2,000 kDa (EPS1), consisting of fructose monomers and identified as a levan with (2→6)-linkages and (1→2)-branching linkages. The other extracellular polysaccharide (EPS2) consisted of mannose and galactose and had a range of sizes as identified through SEC. All three polysaccharides displayed an immune modulatory effect as measured using Interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα).

  • Researchpp 4994-5008Fu, K., Wang, C., Sun, S., Tong, G., and Chin, Y. F. (2012). "A laboratory measurement method for pressure sensitive adhesives in agglomeration deinking of mixed office waste paper: The high-low scanning contrast method," BioRes. 7(4), 4994-5008.AbstractArticlePDF

    A simple measurement method for pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) in an agglomeration deinking system of mixed office waste paper was studied. This method was based on the different scanning performance of ink and PSA specks in hot-pressed and oven-dried handsheets with the change of contrast values that had been selected and set in the image analysis software. The numbers of ink specks per square meter (NPM) were well recognized at both low and high contrast values and exhibited a very good linear relationship within a range of contrast values. The PSA specks, on the other hand, could not be recognized at the low contrast values and could only be recognized at high contrast values. The NPM value of the ink specks was found to have the highest values at the high contrast values and could be accurately predicted by its NPM value at the low contrast values. Thus, the NPM value of the PSA specks could be easily calculated by the total NPM of the handsheet at the high contrast value minus the projected NPM of the ink specks from its low contrast conditions. Compared to the dye method, which was also used on the measurement of microstickies, this method is suggested as a simple and quick laboratory tool to measure the relative quantity of PSA in the mixed office waste paper with minimum interference from the residual toner ink.