NC State
  • Researchpp 211-219Bal, B. C. (2013). "Effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of heartwood and sapwood of Cedrus libani," BioRes. 8(1), 211-219.AbstractArticlePDF

    Effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of heartwood and sapwood of Cedrus libani A. Richard, such as density, equilibrium moisture content, swelling, and fiber saturation point were investigated. Heartwood and sapwood samples were treated at 140, 160, 180, 200, and 220°C for 3 h. After heat treatment, the physical properties of the samples of wood were determined according to Turkish standards. The results showed that mass loss increased and physical properties decreased as the treatment temperature increased. As the treatment temperature was increased, the mass of the heartwood decreased more than that of the sapwood, which may be due to the fact that the heartwood had greater extractives content. Conversely, even though the mass of the heartwood decreased more than the mass of the sapwood at the treatment temperature of 220°C, its physical properties, such as equilibrium moisture content, swelling, and fiber saturation point, decreased less than those of the sapwood.

  • Researchpp 220-230Liu, B., Li, Y.-M., Wu, S.-B., Li, Y.-H., Deng, S.-S., and Xia, Z.-L. (2013). "Pyrolysis characteristic of tobacco stem studied by Py-GC/MS, TG-FTIR, and TG-MS," BioRes. 8(1), 220-230.AbstractArticlePDF

    Pyrolysis characteristics and mechanism of tobacco stem were studied by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (TG-FTIR and TG-MS) techniques. The composition of evolved volatiles from fast pyrolysis of tobacco stem was determined by Py-GC/MS analysis, and the evolution patterns of the major products were investigated by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. Py-GC/MS data indicated that furfural and phenol were the major products in low temperature pyrolysis, and these were generated from depolymerization of cellulose. Indene and naphthalene were the major products in high temperature pyrolysis. TG-FTIR and TG-MS results showed that CO, CO2, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were released between 167ºC and 500ºC; at temperatures >500ºC, CO and CO2 were the main gaseous products.

  • Researchpp 231-237Guntekin, E., Emiroglu, Z. G., and Yilmaz, T. (2013). "Prediction of bending properties for Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) lumber using stress wave method," BioRes. 8(1), 231-237.AbstractArticlePDF

    Bending properties of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) lumber pieces were predicted using the stress wave method. The lumber samples were taken from 30- to 80-year-old red pine trees harvested from a southwest site in Turkey. MTG timber grader was utilized to predict modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) values of lumbers with 40 mm x 90 mm in cross section and 3 meters in length. Static MOE and MOR values of the lumber pieces were determined using a three-point bending test. The coefficient of determination between measured and predicted MOEs was 0.84 and that between dynamic MOE and bending strength was 0.69. However, the coefficient of determination between bending MOE and strength was only 0.45. It seems that dynamic MOE has better prediction capability for bending strength than static MOE. Effects of some variables such as log and visual grades on dynamic MOE values were also determined statistically. Natural frequency of the lumbers showed far more significant effects than other variables. It is apparent that the stress wave method has the potential to predict the bending properties of Turkish red pine lumber.

  • Researchpp 238-249Pouyet, F., Lachenal, D., Das, S., and Chirat, C. (2013). "Minimizing viscosity loss during totally chlorine-free bleaching of hardwood kraft pulp," BioRes. 8(1), 238-249.AbstractArticlePDF

    By applying increasing amounts of ozone (Z stage bleaching) on eucalyptus oxygen-delignified pulps, it was observed that both lignin and hexenuronic acids (HexA) are attacked early during the treatment. While the HexA were progressively removed, however, the oxidized lignin tended to stay in the pulp. An acidic stage (A stage) at pH 3 and a temperature of 90 to 95°C removed a high proportion of the HexA, which eventually reduced the ozone requirement. In spite of the negative impact of the A stage on the DP of cellulose, totally chlorine-free sequences containing A led to pulps of higher viscosity. Increasing the temperature in A to 120°C did not seem to have an effect other than increasing the rate of the hydrolysis reactions. A very efficient metal removal was observed when a chelating agent was added in A (AQ). Some trials showed that splitting the Z stage in a ZEZE-like process (E for alkaline extraction) minimized the impact on pulp viscosity, and that AQPZE-like sequences can reach a quality comparable to some commercial elemental chlorine-free (ECF) pulps.

  • Researchpp 250-271Hariharan, S., and Nambisan, P. (2013). "Optimization of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and Lac production from Ganoderma lucidum under solid state fermentation of pineapple leaf," BioRes. 8(1), 250-271.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study was undertaken to isolate ligninase-producing white-rot fungi for use in the extraction of fibre from pineapple leaf agriwaste. Fifteen fungal strains were isolated from dead tree trunks and leaf litter. Ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and laccase (Lac)), were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using pineapple leaves as the substrate. Of the isolated strains, the one showing maximum production of ligninolytic enzymes was identified to be Ganoderma lucidum by 18S ribotyping. Single parameter optimization and response surface methodology of different process variables were carried out for enzyme production. Incubation period, agitation, and Tween-80 were identified to be the most significant variables through Plackett-Burman design. These variables were further optimized by Box-Behnken design. The overall maximum yield of ligninolytic enzymes was achieved by experimental analysis under these optimal conditions. Quantitative lignin analysis of pineapple leaves by Klason lignin method showed significant degradation of lignin by Ganoderma lucidum under SSF.

  • Researchpp 272-282Huang, Y., Fei, B., Yu, Y., and Zhao, R. (2013). "Effect of modification with phenol formaldehyde resin on the mechanical properties of wood from Chinese fir," BioRes. 8(1), 272-282.AbstractArticlePDF

    Samples of Chinese fir were treated with either low-molecular-weight or commercial phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins. The macro- and micromechanical properties of the treated and untreated samples were determined. The average longitudinal tensile modulus of elasticity (MOE) was 30.88% larger for the samples treated with the low-molecular-weight PF resin than it was for the untreated samples. The average MOE of the samples treated with the commercial PF resin was 29.84% less than that of the untreated samples. The micromechanical properties of the samples were investigated through nanoindentation studies. For the samples modified with low-molecular-weight PF resin, the values of average MOE and hardness were 32.94 and 32.93%, respectively, greater than those of the untreated samples. In contrast, the average MOE and hardness values were 11.99 and 18.14%, respectively, greater for the samples modified with commercial PF resin compared to the untreated samples. It could be inferred that the low-molecular-weight PF resin was able to diffuse into the nanopores in the S2 layer of the tracheid cell wall of the Chinese fir, thereby improving its macromechanical properties. Modification with low-molecular-weight PF resin was an effective way to enhance the longitudinal macromechanical properties of wood from the Chinese fir.

  • Researchpp 283-301Sulaiman, N. S., Hashim, R., Mohamad Amini, M. H., Sulaiman, O., and Hiziroglu, S. (2013). "Evaluation of the properties of particleboard made using oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin," BioRes. 8(1), 283-301.AbstractArticlePDF

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical properties, including density, moisture content, thickness swelling, and water absorption, in addition to the mechanical properties such as modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength of experimental panels that were made from rubberwood particles using oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin as a binder. The samples were also examined using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. The panel properties were compared with the properties of panels manufactured using native oil palm starch. The properties of starch and starch adhesives were also investigated. The panels were produced based on 0.60 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 target densities and two press times of 15 and 20 min. The results showed that the 0.80 g/cm3 panels manufactured using modified oil palm starch and with 15 min of press time had better properties than did the others. However, a lower thickness swelling value was found for panels with density 0.60 g/cm3 and with 15 min of press time. Based on the results in this study, it can be concluded that the use of oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin as a binder has the potential to be used as a green adhesive in commercial applications.

  • Researchpp 302-312Wongprot, T., Matan, N., Matan, N., Preechatiwong, W., and Kyokong, B. (2013). "Response surface modeling of hydrothermal treatment conditions on color changes, strength, and durability properties of rubberwood," BioRes. 8(1), 302-312.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effect of hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures (100 to 160 °C) and treatment times (30 to 720 minutes) on color changes (ΔE*), equilibrium moisture content (EMC), tensile strength (TS), shear strength (SS), brown-rot fungal decay mass loss (FML), and termite attack score (TAS) of rubberwood was examined. Response surface methodology (RSM) with a two-factor, four level (42) full factorial was employed. The mathematical models describing those properties as functions of treatment temperature and logarithm of treatment time were obtained. Hydrothermal treatment adversely and positively influenced mechanical properties (TS and SS) and durability (FML and TAS), respectively, of rubberwood. Strong correlations between ΔE*, TS, SS, and FML of hydrothermally treated rubberwood, proposed to be a consequence of degradation of hemicelluloses, were observed. Finally, ΔE* proved to be a good indicator of TS, SS, and FML but not that of EMC and TAS of hydrothermally treated rubberwood.

  • Researchpp 313-326Cecchini, J. P., Serra, R. M., Ulla, M. A., Zanuttini, M. A., and Milt, V. G. (2013). "Enhancing mechanical properties of ceramic papers loaded with zeolites using borate compounds as binders," BioRes. 8(1), 313-326.AbstractArticlePDF

    NaY zeolite-containing ceramic papers were prepared by a papermaking technique with a dual polyelectrolyte retention system that implied the use of cationic and anionic polymers. To improve their mechanical properties, we found that some borate compounds could be successfully used as ceramic binders. Three types of sodium and/or calcium borates were tested as binders: colemanite, nobleite, and anhydrous ulexite. The improvement in the mechanical properties depends both on the borate used and on the calcination temperature. By XRD it was determined that the faujasite structure collapsed after calcination at 700°C, which limited the final calcination temperature of zeolitic ceramic papers. Different amounts of NaY zeolite were added to ceramic papers and, as observed by SEM, faujasite particles were well distributed throughout the ceramic paper structure. Ceramic papers containing 1.2 wt.% zeolite after calcination at 650°C resulted in structured catalysts that were easy-to-handle, and which can be adapted to different conformations.

  • Researchpp 327-339Chen, C., Guo, W., Zhou, Y., Xiao, P., Li, Y., and Wang, J. (2013). "Curing behavior and properties of rice husk/melamine formaldehyde composites," BioRes. 8(1), 327-339.AbstractArticlePDF

    Melamine formaldehyde (MF) composites filled with rice husk powder were prepared by compression molding. The curing processes of the composites with different powder contents and powder particle sizes were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis. Gelation temperature and curing time were subjected to optimization of their mechanical and thermal properties. The rice husk powder loading in the MF matrix and the powder particle size were found to be critical factors governing the curing behavior and properties of the composite. Composites with larger content or smaller powder size had higher gelation temperatures and lower viscosities. The curing times of the composites were also influenced by the powder content. Flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with powder loading in the 20 to 90 mesh particle size range, while notched impact strength decreased. The mechanical properties of the composites decreased to a considerable extent when the fibers were too small to achieve strong interfacial adhesion. Morphological (scanning electron microscopy) and thermal studies (heat deflection temperature) were also conducted.


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