NC State
  • Researchpp 3571-3579Jiang, J., Lu, J., Zhou, Y., Zhao, Y., and Zhao, L. (2014). "Compression strength and modulus of elasticity parallel to the grain of oak wood at ultra-low and high temperatures," BioRes. 9(2), 3571-3579.AbstractArticlePDF

    The influence of temperature on the compression strength (fc0) in the range of -196 ºC to +220 ºC, and compression modulus of elasticity (Ec0) parallel to the grain of oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch et Turcz.) wood in the range of -196 ºC to +23 ºC were studied. Five specimens were prepared for each temperature level. The specimens were kept at each temperature level for 30 min before a mechanical test was performed in an adjustable-temperature chamber. The results indicated that there were four different failure patterns, depending on the temperature range. When the temperature was decreased from +23 ºC to -196 ºC, the fc0 and Ec0 of wood increased by 283.91% and 146.30%, respectively. The relationships between fc0 and temperature and between Ec0 and temperature could be described by a linear and a polynomial model, respectively. Moreover, the Ec0 could be used to predict fc0 using a polynomial model. However, when the temperature was increased from +23 ºC to +220 ºC, the fc0 decreased by 67%, indicating a non-linear relationship.

  • Researchpp 3580-3590Dong, C., Li, C., Xiao, H., He, B., and Qian, L. (2014). "β-Cyclodextrin grafted cellulose and cationic starch for antibacterial paper products: A comparative study," BioRes. 9(2), 3580-3590.AbstractArticlePDF

    Two kinds of macromolecules applied in papermaking were modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and loaded with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CipHCl) in an attempt to compare their potential applications in antimicrobial paper. β-CD grafted cellulose (β-CD-Cel) and β-CD grafted cationic starch (β-CD-CS) were prepared by grafting β-CD onto cellulose fiber and cationic starch using citric acid (CA) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crosslinking agents, respectively. β-CD-Cel and β-CD-CS were both loaded with an antimicrobial agent (CipHCl) to form inclusion complexes, namely β-CD-Cel-CipHCl and β-CD-CS-CipHCl. Furthermore, the inclusion complexes were added to the pulp to prepare antibacterial paper. The antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the paper were investigated. The results showed that the paper with both inclusion complexes exhibited excellent antibacterial activity, and the antibacterial activity with β-CD-CS-CipHCl was higher than that with β-CD-Cel-CipHCl. Moreover, the addition of both β-CD-Cel-CipHCl and β-CD-CS-CipHCl affected the tensile and tear strengths of the paper. The paper with β-CD-CS-CipHCl had better physical properties than that with β-CD-Cel-CipHCl because the CS acts as a reinforcing agent in papermaking. These prepared antibacterial paper sheets may be useful for preventing wound and nosocomial infections in the medical and packaging fields.

  • Researchpp 3591-3601Li, H., Zhang, Z., Song, K., Lee, S., Chun, S.-J., Zhou, D., and Wu, Q. (2014). "Effect of durability treatment on ultraviolet resistance, strength, and surface wettability of wood plastic composite," BioRes. 9(2), 3591-3601.AbstractArticlePDF

    A comparative analysis of photostabilizing effects of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALSs), an ultraviolet absorber (UVA), and zinc borate (ZnB) on wood plastic composites (WPCs) was made in this study to show the influence of the accelerated weathering on the surface degradation and loss of mechanical properties of treated WPCs. The results showed that the UVA was the most effective in preventing composite from being bleached, especially when the aging time was longer than 1000 hours. With the addition of the ultraviolet stabilizers, the contact angles increased, indicating increased water wettability. The contact angle of UVA-containing samples was greater than that of the control and the other samples treated with HALSs and ZnB. Flexural properties of all materials decreased after being weathered under xenon-arc light. Materials treated with UVA had higher retention rates in flexural strength and modulus. The results show that, among the agents used, UVA was the most effective additive in preventing WPCs from ultraviolet degradation.

  • Researchpp 3602-3612Feng, Q., Cheng, H., Li, J., Wang, P., and Xie, Y. (2014). "Adsorption behavior of basic dye from aqueous solution onto alkali extracted lignin," BioRes. 9(2), 3602-3612.AbstractArticlePDF

    Alkali extracted lignin (AEL), isolated from corn stalks with dilute alkali solution under mild condition, was used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and initial dye concentration for the removal of MB. The kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and the adsorption kinetics were found to be well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data were perfectly fitted to the Langmuir isotherm equation when compared with Freundlich isotherm equation. Based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, the predicted maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 121.20 mg g-1 (at 30 ºC). The results showed that this adsorbent had a high adsorption capacity, making it a promising alternative for dye removal.

  • Researchpp 3613-3631Murithi, G., Onindo, C. O., Wambu, E. W., and Muthakia, G. K. (2014). "Removal of cadmium(II) ions from water by adsorption using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biomass," BioRes. 9(2), 3613-3631.AbstractArticlePDF

    The kinetics and equilibrium binding of Cd(II) ions onto raw water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) biomass (RBH) were investigated with the view to utilize it as a low-cost biosorbent for removal of toxic metal ions from water. The biosorption was analyzed through batch experiments with respect to the effect of contact time, agitation speed, biosorbent dosage, solution pH, Cd(II) concentration, and the presence of other metal ions. Cadmium adsorption onto Eichhornia crassipes biomass was pH- and temperature-dependent, and complete Cd(II) removal from solution was achieved at all Cd(II) concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and the RBH Cd(II) uptake capacity was 104 mg/g. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99). The root biomass of water hyacinth had one of the highest Cd(II) sequestration efficiencies when compared to other biosorbents that have been used to remove Cd(II) from water.

  • Researchpp 3632-3641Ziaee, Z., Xiao, H., Guan, Y., and Fatehi, P. (2014). "Coating PHGH-modified starch on papers to induce antimicrobial properties," BioRes. 9(2), 3632-3641.AbstractArticlePDF

    In this work, paper was rendered antimicrobial via applying antimicrobial-modified starch as a coating material onto the paper’s surface. The antimicrobial starch was prepared by covalently bonding guanidine polymers using a coupling reaction. Two different coating layers were applied onto the paper’s surface. The first coating layer contained clay mixed with a latex binder (clay 100 g/latex 20 g). The antimicrobial starches, which possessed different grafting ratios of the antimicrobial agent (30 wt.% and 50 wt.%), were applied as the second coating layer on the paper. The results showed that the coating thickness was approximately constant at 4 μm. In the presence of 0.5 to 1.0 wt.% antimicrobial starch on cellulose fibers, the growth inhibition of bacteria was almost 100%. Additionally, the resulting coated paper exhibited high antimicrobial activities against E. coli. Furthermore, the results showed that the coated papers prevented fungal growth.

  • Reviewpp 3642-3659Khan, B. A., Warner, P., and Wang, H. (2014). "Antibacterial properties of hemp and other natural fibre plants: A review," BioRes. 9(2), 3642-3659.AbstractArticlePDF

    Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.

  • Reviewpp 3660-3687Espinoza-Acosta, J. L., Torres-Chávez, P. I., Carvajal-Millán, E., Ramírez-Wong, B., Bello-Pérez, L. A., and Montaño-Leyva, B. (2014). "Ionic liquids and organic solvents for recovering lignin from lignocellulosic biomass," BioRes. 9(2), 3660-3687.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignin contributes to the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and affects enzymatic activity during biorefinery operations. Therefore, it must be removed before further processing. Organic solvents (organosolv) and ionic liquids are two important pretreatments for delignifying lignocellulosic biomass. They have proven beneficial for fractionating and recovering cellulose and hemicellulose, as well as lignin with useful physicochemical properties. Volatility and harsh conditions of the acidic systems that result in toxicity, corrosion, and pollution are the main problems of organosolv. Ionic liquids, generally recognized as green solvents, have also been proposed as a possible solution to the challenge of using lignocellulosic biomass. Ionic liquids can either dissolve the lignocellulosic biomass completely or dissolve it into individual fractions. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of organosolv and ionic liquids, since both are important methods to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass in their main components which can be converted into value added products.

  • Reviewpp 3688-3732Lindholm, P. C., Knuutinen, J. S., Ahkola, H. S. J., and Herve, S. H. (2014). "Analysis of trace pharmaceuticals and related compounds in municipal wastewaters by preconcentration, chromatography, derivatization, and separation methods," BioRes. 9(2), 3688-3732.AbstractArticlePDF

    A significant portion of pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals consumed by people and animals are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Most of them are degraded during the wastewater treatment processes, but some of them degrade only partially and may be widely transported and dispersed into the aquatic environment. This is why efficient and fast analytical methods are needed for detection of organic compounds in wastewaters at trace levels. Because wastewaters often consist of complex matrices and high-molecular mass materials, e.g., lignocellulosic biomass, which may bring challenges to the sample preparation procedures, efficient pre-concentration methods such as solid phase extraction (SPE) solid phase microextraction (SPME), or single‑drop microextraction (SDME) are needed. The most common analysis methods are gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The aim of this review is to give an overview of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods when characterizing low- and medium-molecular weight organic pollutants, mainly focusing on pharmaceuticals, biocides, and personal care products in environmental matrices.

  • Reviewpp 3733-3754Gangwar, A. K., Prakash, N. T., and Prakash, R. (2014). "Applicability of microbial xylanases in paper pulp bleaching: A review," BioRes. 9(2), 3733-3754.AbstractArticlePDF

    The pulp and paper industries are attempting to bring changes to the bleaching process to minimize the use of chlorine to satisfy regulatory and market demands. Xylanases offer a cost-effective way for mills to realize a variety of benefits in bleaching. One main benefit is reducing Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX) discharge. This is achieved primarily by decreasing chlorine gas usage. Other benefits include eliminating chlorine gas usage in mills with high chlorine dioxide substitution levels and increasing the brightness ceiling (particularly for mills contemplating Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) and Totally Chlorine Free (TCF) bleaching sequences and in mills using large amounts of peroxide or chlorine dioxide). These benefits are achieved in the long term when the enzymes are properly selected and integrated into the process. This review summarizes the application of xylanases in the bleaching of pulp, with emphasis on the mechanism and effects of xylanase treatment on pulp and paper and the factors affecting the bleaching process and its efficiency. Brightness gains of up to 1.4 to 2.1 units have been achieved with xylanase treatment with the reduction of chlorine consumption by 15.0%. Xylanase treatment can lower the AOX amount in filtrate by 25.0% as compared to references. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) can be reduced by 85%.


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