NC State
  • Researchpp 6558-6567Xavier, C. R., López, D., Gómez, G., Chamorro, S., Scholze, A., and Vidal, G. (2017). "Sensitivity study comparing Daphnia obtusa (Kurz 1874) and Daphnia magna (Straus 1820) exposure to treated kraft mill effluents, diethylstilbestrol, and androstenedione," BioRes. 12(3), 6558-6567.AbstractArticlePDF

    Kraft mill effluents treated by activated sludge show a reduction in acute toxicity. However, their discharges produce hormonal effects in an aquatic ecosystem, due to the sterols metabolites as androstenedione contained in the effluents. Daphnids bioassays are a powerful approach for determining toxicity. However, there are relative sensitivities depending on the species. The main objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of D. magna and D. obtusa when exposed to kraft mill effluents, diethylstilboestrol (DES), and androstenedione (AED). The sensitivities were tested using acute bioassay exposed to kraft pulp mill. Moreover, the allometric growth rate of both daphnids affected by DES and AED regarding time were also evaluated for a period of nine days. Variation in the ratio between body length and body width – at the abdominal cavity – over time (k index) was evaluated. Results indicated that AED and DES compounds affected the allometric growth rate of daphnids. Specifically D. magna exhibited more sensitivity when it was exposed to kraft pulp mill.

  • Researchpp 6568-6578Chen, F., Li, H., Jiang, Z., and Wang, G. (2017). "Effects of aging temperature on mechanical performance of bamboo bundle laminated veneer lumber joints prepared by intermittent hot press process," BioRes. 12(3), 6568-6578.AbstractArticlePDF

    Recently, an intermittent hot-pressing process had been developed and applied to produce bamboo bundle laminated veneer lumber (BLVL) joints with lengths of more than 6 m. According to our previous studies, there was a major difference in the physical and mechanical performance of hot-pressing joints and at adjacent positions on the lumber. In this paper, heat transfer and the effects of various aging temperatures on the mechanical performance of the joints of intermittent hot-pressed BLVLs were studied. During the hot-pressing process, there were noticeable different temperature changes on the board. In addition, degradation of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) values on the joints was greater than that on the adjacent positions of the BLVLs, and the degradation increased with increasing aging temperature. Because of the low interfacial bonding strength of the joints caused by the pre-curing effect during the hot-pressing process, the MOR was more sensitive to hydrothermal conditions. Therefore, when BLVLs produced by intermittent hot-pressing are used as engineering components, the joints should be well-designed and arranged to avoid being used in the same cross-section.

  • Researchpp 6579-6590Almeida, T. H. de., Almeida, D. H. de., De Araujo, V. A., Silva, S. A. M., Christoforo, A. L., and Lahr, F. A. R. (2017). "Density as estimator of dimensional stability quantities of Brazilian tropical woods," BioRes. 12(3), 6579-6590.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wood is a material widely used in various sectors of construction, such as in structures and building components. The volume of wood extracted from tropical forests has reached a considerable amount, and this wood is marketed with popular names without prior characterization. Wood density is an easy property to measure, and its use as an estimator of other properties is very common in this sector. This study investigated the possibility of the estimation of important quantities in dimensional stability of Brazilian tropical woods by using the density at 12% moisture content, anhydrous density, and basic density. Testing the ability to estimate radial, axial, tangential, and volumetric shrinkage, anisotropy coefficient, coefficient of volumetric rate of volumetric shrinkage, as well as the rate of volumetric swelling using the densities above, with linear, exponential, geometric, and logarithmic models, the best determination coefficient was: R2 = 19.58%. The results were, in summary, that the variable density was not a good estimator of the dimensional stability of the wood.

  • Researchpp 6591-6606Lan, Y., Yan, N., and Wang, W. (2017). "Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane filled with biochar core-shell particles for removing ethanol from water," BioRes. 12(3), 6591-6606.AbstractArticlePDF

    A new type of biochar-SiO2 core-shell particles (BCNPs) was successfully prepared via the sol-gel-sediment method. The characteristics of BCNPs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This novel filler was added to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix to prepare composite membranes to separate ethanol from water via pervaporation (PV). The effect of BCNPs on the performance of the membranes was researched. Experimental results showed that the addition of BCNPs led to remarkably improved PV performance of composite membranes. When a BCNPs content was 5 wt.% for a 10 wt.% ethanol solution at 40 °C, the best PV performances gained were the separation factor of 11.9 and the corresponding permeation flux of 227 g·m-2·h-1.

  • Researchpp 6607-6617Qian, S., Zhang, F., Liu, B., Ren, H., and Tong, G. (2017). "Polyacrylate-based water-absorbent hydrogels prepared with lignin-related compounds: Process conditions and performance," BioRes. 12(3), 6607-6617.AbstractArticlePDF

    Utilizing biomass resources to synthesize water-absorbent resin has attracted global interest as a new research direction. Lignin, as the second most abundant renewable biopolymer in nature, is a strong candidate for use in renewable materials. In this study, water-absorbent resins were synthesized from lignosulfonate (LS) and acrylic acid (AA) by grafting copolymerization with an aqueous solution of potassium persulfate (KPS) as the initiator and N’N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent. The optimum process parameters of lignosulfonate-grafted-polyacrylic acid resin (LS-PAA) were obtained via a single-factor method: AA 30 wt.%, LS 2.67 wt.% (to AA), cross-linker 0.03 wt.% (to AA), initiator 0.43 wt.% (to AA), and neutralization 65%. The optimum reaction temperature was 60 °C. Although lignin is a hydrophobic polymer, it has many reactive functional groups that can react with AA. It has been expected that adding lignins can change the cross-linking density by their three-dimensional structure, thus increasing the water absorbency. The LS-PAA resins were compared to other kinds of lignin derivatives including alkali lignin, lignocresol, lignoresorcinol, and lignopyrogallol under the same reaction conditions. The results showed that changing the types of lignin can change the resulting water absorbency. Lignopyrogallol-grafted-polyacrylic acid resin (LP-PAA) showed the highest water absorbency (2137 g/g).

  • Researchpp 6618-6628Bajo Jr, P., and Acda, M. (2017). "Fuel pellets from a mixture of rice husk and wood particles," BioRes. 12(3), 6618-6628.AbstractArticlePDF

    The physical and mechanical properties were studied for fuel pellets made from a mixture of rice husk and Gmelina arborea wood particles. Pellet density, compressive strength, and abrasion resistance were used to evaluate pellet quality at various densification pressures and proportions of rice husk to wood particles. Pellet density and compressive strength increased from 850 to 1070 kg/m3 and 0.61 to 1.2 MPa, respectively, when densification pressure increased from 80 to 120 MPa. The abrasion resistance for all pellet samples in this study was < 2.0%. Proximate analyses of the fuel pellets showed that volatile matter, fixed carbon, and heating value were relatively high and increased with a higher proportion of wood particles. Ash levels were also high (1.3 to 17.8%), which could cause problems with emission and deposition during thermal conversion. In general, except for the ash content, the physical and mechanical properties of pellets made from rice husk and G. arborea wood particles in this study were within the acceptable limits to be used as fuel pellets for industrial heat applications.

  • Researchpp 6629-6655Ahvazi, B., Wojciechowicz, O., Xu, P., Ngo, T. D., and Hawari, J. (2017). "Formation of ligno-polyols: Fact or fiction," BioRes. 12(3), 6629-6655.AbstractArticlePDF

    The physical and chemical characteristics of several lignin-polyol blends were investigated by qualitative and quantitative methods from the view of biobased polyurethane applications. Four differently isolated biomass lignins from forestry and agricultural residues were blended with polyester polyol, and one was blended with polyethylene glycol. The isolated products were examined thoroughly to elucidate the subsequent lignin and polyol interactions during the premixing stage of biobased polyurethane formulation. Polyol was detected in lignin even after vigorous washings with several organic solvents and Soxhlet extraction. The experimental data coupled with two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the formation of ligno-polyols via strong intermolecular attractions, as well as some linkages between several lignin hydroxyl and polyol functional groups.

  • Researchpp 6656-6664Tee, Y. B., Tee, L. T., Daengprok, W., and Talib, R. A. (2017). "Chemical, physical, and barrier properties of edible film from flaxseed mucilage," BioRes. 12(3), 6656-6664.AbstractArticlePDF

    Chemical, physical, and barrier properties of flaxseed mucilage-based films were investigated to determine the appropriate applications for coating or packaging of food or bioproducts. The film samples were formed via casting with the addition of glycerol as a plasticizer up to a maximum of 5 wt.%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed an increase of intensity in the –OH stretching vibration region and the appearance of a new peak at 2883.1 cm-1 in the plasticized film samples. These changes may indicate possible interactions between the mucilage and glycerol. With increasing glycerol concentration, the water activity decreased, while the moisture content and water solubility increased. With regard to barrier properties, the water vapour permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP) notably increased with increasing glycerol content. With these high WVP and OP values, the films can be potentially extended for coating or packaging fresh produce.

  • Researchpp 6665-6678Bazyar, B., and Samariha, A. (2017). "Thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of nano-composite from fir wood flour and polypropylene," BioRes. 12(3), 6665-6678.AbstractArticlePDF

    The thermal, flammability, and morphological properties were investigated for a nano-composite made from fir wood flour and polypropylene. Polypropylene (PP), fir wood flour, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), and nanosilica at 5 different concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 phc), were mixed using an extruder, and samples were made using a hand-press. Then, the hardness and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), limited oxygen index (LOI), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results were studied. The results showed that increasing the nanosilica content up to 8 phc increased the hardness. Also, when the nanosilica content was increased to 8 phc, the thermal stability increased and more charcoal was retained. Increasing the nanosilica content increased the crystallization. The limited oxygen index increased. Studying the x-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the width and peak intensity decreased with the increased intake of silica nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that an increased concentration of nanosilica meant better connections and a more uniform bond was established between the fibers and the matrix.

  • Researchpp 6679-6697Hakim Roslan, M. A., Abdullah, N., Abdul Murad, N. Z., Halmi, M. I. E., Idrus, Z., and Mustafa, S. (2017). "Optimisation of extrusion for enhancing the nutritive value of palm kernel cake using response surface methodology," BioRes. 12(3), 6679-6697.AbstractArticlePDF

    The palm kernel cake (PKC) inclusion level in poultry diets is limited by the high indigestible polysaccharides content. Hence, PKC was subjected to an extrusion treatment to reduce the content of these components. The effects of extrusion on the total non-starch polysaccharides (T-NSP), fibre, monosaccharides, and mannooligosaccharides contents were evaluated according to the response surface methodology (RSM) with various temperatures, screw speeds, hopper speeds, and moisture contents. The optimum conditions observed according to the RSM were a temperature of 178 °C, screw speed of 100 rpm, hopper speed of 5 Hz, and moisture content of 75%. The T-NSP content was significantly reduced (p<0.05), from 63.3 ± 1.85% to 57.6 ± 0.89%, and the crude fibre content decreased (p<0.05) from 16.7 ± 0.68% to 13.5 ± 0.99%. The mannose, glucose, and fructose contents of the PKC increased (p<0.05) 2.9-, 1.9-, and 1.4-fold, respectively. The 1,4-β-D-mannobiose, 1,4-β-D-mannotriose, 1,4-β-D-mannotetraose, and 1,4-β-D-mannopentaose increased (p<0.05) 3.7-, 3.8-, 3.5-, and 32.8-fold, respectively. This study showed that extrusion enhanced the nutritive value of PKC.


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