NC State
  • Researchpp 7311-7324Gaff, M., Ruman, D., Svoboda, T., Sikora, A., Záborský, V., and Vallejo, C. R. (2017). "Impact bending strength as a function of selected factors: 2 – Layered materials from densified lamellas," BioRes. 12(4), 7311-7324.AbstractArticlePDF

    This article examines the effect of selected factors (wood species, lamella combination, type of adhesive, number of loading cycles) on the impact bending strength (IBS) of laminated wood. The IBS was tested on specimens made from beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and aspen lamellas (Populus tremula L.). The laminated wood was densified by 10% and 20% of the original thickness. For bonding the wood, polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive was used, and the product was compared with laminated wood bonded with polyurethane adhesive (PUR). The wood species and lamella combination had significant effects on IBS. The highest values of IBS were found for beech wood lamellas.

  • Researchpp 7325-7340Mehryar, E., Ding, W., Hemmat, A., Talha, Z., Hassan, M., Mamat, T., and Hei, K. (2017). "Anaerobic co-digestion of oil refinery wastewater with bagasse; evaluating and modeling by neural network algorithms and mathematical equations," BioRes. 12(4), 7325-7340.AbstractArticlePDF

    To survey the anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of oil refinery wastewater (ORWW) with sugarcane bagasse (SCB), six different AcoD compositions were evaluated. Results including cumulative biogas production (BGP), bio-methane contents (BMP), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) removal rate were experimentally obtained. The negligible BGP by ORWW mono-digestion revealed that it could not support any microbial activity. However, increasing the SCB ratio in the AcoD compositions led to increased BGP and BMP contents. By considering the statistical test (LSD0.05) results for the kinetic parameters, the 1:4 ratio treatment was the most favorable AcoD composition. Moreover, the CODs removal rate from 22.34 ± 1.63% for the SCB mono-digestion was improved to 49.67 ± 0.38% for the 2:3 AcoD composition and BMP content from 54.12 ± 0.45% for the SCB mono-digestion was enhanced to 62.69 ± 1.22% for the 1:4 AcoD composition with 20% lower SCB usage. The results computed by applying three mathematical models determined that the modified Gompertz model provided the best fit. Also, implementing artificial neural network algorithms to model the BGP data revealed that the Back Propagation algorithm was the best suited for the experimental BGP data, with 0.6444 and 0.9658 for MSE and R2, respectively.

  • Researchpp 7341-7348Huang, W. X., Zhang, Y. H., Ge, Y. Y., Qin, L., and Li, Z. L. (2017). "Soft nitrogen and sulfur incorporated into enzymatic hydrolysis lignin as an environmentally friendly antioxidant and mercury adsorbent," BioRes. 12(4), 7341-7348.AbstractArticlePDF

    Soft donors of nitrogen and sulfur were incorporated into enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL-NS) to make it suitable for multiple applications. Characterizations of the environmentally friendly material by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the layered porous structure with nitrogen and sulfur groups. It exhibited high antioxidant activity due to the strong electron-donating capability of the soft donors. Moreover, the soft donors also contributed to the chemical complexation of Hg(II) with EHL-NS, which distinctly enhanced the adsorption of Hg(II) in water (Qe=180 mg/g, 25 °C). Given that the free radicals were highly effective at scavenging and adsorption, the functionalized enzymatic hydrolysis lignin is expected to serve a useful role.

  • Researchpp 7349-7362Zhang, L., Sun, Z., Liang, D., Lin, J., and Xiao, W. (2017). "Preparation and performance evaluation of PLA/coir fibre biocomposites," BioRes. 12(4), 7349-7362.AbstractArticlePDF

    Alkali-treated coir fibers were modified by silane coupling agent in a microwave oven. The use of microwave-assisted chemical treatments efficiently promoted the esterification reaction to improve the interfacial adhesion between the coir fibers and PLA matrix. Effects of the treated coir fiber content (1 wt.% to 7 wt.%) on the surface morphology and tensile, impact, and thermal properties of PLA/coir fiber biocomposites (AKWCF/PLAs) were evaluated. At a coir fiber content of 1%, the AKWCF/PLAs showed a remarkable increase of 28% in the percentage impact strength, while the tensile strength and breaking strength decreased with increasing coir fibre content. The thermal stability of the AKWCF/PLAs worsened and the degree of crystallinity increased with increasing fiber content. The decreased cold crystallization temperatures of AKWCF/PLAs further confirmed the role of coir fibers treated with the new combined method as an effective nucleating agent.

  • Researchpp 7363-7375Yang, Q., Wang, H., Larson, R., and Runge, T. (2017). "Comparative study of chemical pretreatments of dairy manure for enhanced biomethane production," BioRes. 12(4), 7363-7375.AbstractArticlePDF

    Dairy manure containing partially digested plant cells is an inexpensive bioenergy feedstock. The carbohydrates and lignin that remain after digestion are typically processed in an anaerobic digester to produce biomethane, but due to the remaining material’s recalcitrance, the process has a low conversion efficiency. To improve the conversion of this lignocellulosic material, chemical, thermal, or biological pretreatments can be considered. This study compared several chemical pretreatments including dilute acid, sulfite, and alkali pretreatments for dairy manure as a bioenergy feedstock and analyzed their impact on biomethane production. The comparative study showed that a hot alkali pretreatment (180 °C, 30 min) can improve the methane production of dairy manure by 50%, which is more effective than dilute acid (6.8%), sulfite (26.3%), and cold or ambient alkali (19.8 to 32.8%) pretreatments. However, the ambient alkali pretreatment (23 °C, 12 h) was calculated to be more economically feasible because of the net energy production.

  • Researchpp 7376-7394Martínez-Conde, A., Huber, D., Pinkl, S., Mahrdt, E., Teischinger, A., and Müller, U. (2017). "Dynamic compression: A novel technique to reduce energy consumption during wood fiber production," BioRes. 12(4), 7376-7394.AbstractArticlePDF

    Thermo-mechanical refining is a common fiber production process known for its high energy demands. Throughout this process, wood chips are subjected to repetitive shearing and compression such that the fibers separate and subsequently fibrillate. There is a growing body of research in the development of mechanical pre-treatments that reduce energy demands during chemo- and thermo-mechanical pulping, with shear/compression combinations currently standing as the most efficient method of initiating defibration. Given the common grounds between the fiberboard and paper refining processes, it could be possible to use paper pre-treatments during fiberboard pulp refining. Furthermore, as pulping fibers for fiberboard are less worked and refined, mechanical pre-treatments are assumed to be more efficient. In this study, the effectiveness of dynamic compression was assessed as a pre-treatment step before the chips enter the refiner. Shaped wet chips with an annual ring orientation of 45° were struck by a free-falling weight with a fixed potential energy using a special prototype. After refining both the reference and pre-treated chips using a pressurized disc refiner, the energy consumption of those fibers was 48% lower than that for non pre-treated chips for a comparable fiber quality.

  • Researchpp 7395-7412Gurau, L., Petru, A., Varodi, A., and Timar, M. C. (2017). "The influence of CO2 laser beam power output and scanning speed on surface roughness and colour changes of beech (Fagus sylvatica)," BioRes. 12(4), 7395-7412.AbstractArticlePDF

    The literature provides very little information about engraving or decorating wood using a laser beam. No study was found that considers the surface roughness of wood after such treatments. This paper therefore aimed to find the influence of varying the laser power output and scanning speed of a CO2 laser beam on the surface roughness and colour of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) for aesthetic applications such as decorative drawing. Laser power outputs from 5.6 to 6.8 W were tested in combination with scanning speeds from 100 to 500 mm/s. The surface roughness was assessed with a robust filter and by following measuring and evaluation recommendations from previous research to reduce the bias from the wood anatomy. The surface roughness measured by a series of roughness parameters (Ra, Rq, Rt, Rk, Rpk, Rvk) and total colour difference DE increased with laser power and decreased with scanning speed. A good correlation was found between surface roughness and wood colour change. Such correlations can be useful for selecting the laser power-scanning speed combinations capable of giving the chosen colour change at a minimum surface roughness.

  • Researchpp 7413-7426Sedlecký, M., and Gašparík, M. (2017). "Power consumption during edge milling of medium-density fiberboard and edge-glued panel," BioRes. 12(4), 7413-7426.AbstractArticlePDF

    This paper presents the energy consumption differences during the edge milling of various board materials (medium-density fiberboard (MDF), medium-density fiberboard with single-sided lamination (MDF-L), and spruce edge-glued panel (SEGP)). The edge milling was carried out with various parameters: feed rate (4, 8, and 11 m/min); cutting speed (20, 30, 40, and 60 m/s); and blade type (tungsten carbide HW1, HW2, and HW1 coated with CrTiN (HW1 + CrTiN)). The results indicated that the increase in the cutting speed and feed rate cause the increase in cutting power. The highest cutting power values were observed with the milling of MDF; slightly lower values were observed with MDF-L, and the lowest values were observed with SEGP. Very similar cutting power values during milling were noted with HW1 and HW2 blades, whereas milling with the HW1 + CrTiN resulted in slightly higher values (e.g., 1% higher).

  • Researchpp 7427-7438Yin, Y., Zhao, L., Jiang, X., Wang, H., and Gao, W. (2017). "Synthesis of triazine derivative and its application in the modification of cellulose nanocrystals," BioRes. 12(4), 7427-7438.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were modified with triazine derivative in an effort to decrease the hydrophilicity of CNCs and improve their thermal stability. In recent decades, much attention has been given to the modification of CNCs to broaden their use in various applications, such as in nanocomposites, as adsorbents for the disposal of wastewater, and so on. The CNCs with a rod-like shape were obtained from cotton through sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hydrophobic triazine derivative was synthesized via the reaction between triazine and n-butylamine (BA) and then applied to modify CNCs to improve their thermal stability and diminish the hydrophilicity of the nanoparticles. Results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated a 150 °C increase in the initial thermal decomposition temperature of modified nanocrystals compared to the original CNCs. The improved thermal stability of modified CNCs was attributed to a shielding effect of the hydrophobic aliphatic amine layer on the surface of the nanoparticles. The results of the dynamic contact angle measurement revealed a decrease of hydrophilicity of the modified CNCs.

  • Researchpp 7439-7451Li, R., Yang, G., Wang, Q., Chen, J., Dong, J., and Zhang, X. (2017). "Preparation of carbon-based solid acid from corncob residual and its performance for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis," BioRes. 12(4), 7439-7451.AbstractArticlePDF

    A carbon-based solid acid catalyst (CHACS) derived corncob residual was prepared by incomplete hydrothermal carbonization followed by activation with phosphoric acid impregnation and sulfuric acid sulfonation. The structure of the solid acid catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), specific surface area (SSA), and elemental analysis. The -SO3H, -COOH, and phenolic -OH functional groups were successfully introduced. Phosphoric acid activation facilitated formation of the porous structure in the solid acid catalyst. The specific surface area and acid density were 1569 m2/g and 1.030 mmol/g, respectively. The CHACS exhibited better catalytic activity for hydrolysis conversion of corn stalk in ionic liquid with water as solvent. A total reducing sugars (TRS) yield of 68.3% was obtained in water and a TRS yield of 52.5% was obtained in an ionic liquid of [BMIM][Cl] at 140 °C for 120 min. The CHACS expressed good catalytic activity in each of 4 separate instances of reuse.