NC State
  • Researchpp 7178-7194Löwe, A., Hauptmann, M., and Majschak, J. P. (2017). "The effect of ultrasonic oscillation on the quality of 3D shapes during deep-drawing of paperboard," BioRes. 12(4), 7178-7194.AbstractArticlePDF

    In this publication, the ultrasonic-assisted deep-drawing of fiber-based materials, whose implementation was presented in Löwe et al. (2016), was studied in detail. Methods were developed for measuring the properties of deep-drawn cups, including cup stability, shape deviation, and surface quality. The relationship between these properties and the process parameters were determined with a design of experiment, which allows the user to adjust the cup properties in order to optimize them.

  • Researchpp 7195-7204Stajic, M., Ćilerdžić, J., Galić, M., Ivanović, Ž., and Vukojević, J. (2017). "Lignocellulose degradation by Daedaleopsis confragosa and D. tricolor," BioRes. 12(4), 7195-7204.AbstractArticlePDF

    The properties and capacities of the ligninolytic enzymes of Daedaleopsis spp. are still unknown. This is the first study on the effect of plant residues and period of cultivation on the properties of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases of D. confragosa and D. tricolor, as well as their ligninolytic potentials. Wheat straw was the optimal carbon source for synthesis of highly active Mn-dependent peroxidases (4126.9 U/L in D. confragosa and 2037.9 U/L in D. tricolor). However, laccases were the predominant enzymes, and the best inducer of their activity (up 16000.0 U/L) was cherry sawdust. Wheat straw was the most susceptible plant residue to the effect of the enzymes, and extent of lignin degradation was 43.3% after 14 days of fermentation with D. tricolor. However, D. confragosa was a more effective lignin degrader, as it converted even 21.3% wheat straw lignin on the 6th day of cultivation. The results of the study clearly showed that delignification extent depends on mushroom species and on the type of plant residue, which is extremely important for potential use in biotechnological processes.

  • Researchpp 7205-7217Xu, Y., Wang, B., Shen, Y., Wu, J., Feng, L., and Yu, H. (2017). "Effect of softening treatment on cutting force during slicing the veneers of common fast-growing wood," BioRes. 12(4), 7205-7217.AbstractArticlePDF

    To verify the effect of softening treatment on the cutting force during slicing of veneers, an experiment was performed using a veneer slicer with steam injection heating function. Several conditions were set to soften the experimental materials of poplar (Populus L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta Smith), pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.). The cutting force was detected by the YE7600 signal analysis system. The results showed that the cutting force increased with increased slicing thickness. The cutting force was observed to follow the order, from high to low for the conditions of being soaked in cold water, then steam heated, water-poached, and steam heated again. Compared to the case of non-steam heating, the effect of steam heating on reducing the cutting force was satisfactory, and the maximum decrease percentage reached 83.1%. The cutting force was positively related to the wood density and hardness, and the cutting stroke had a great influence on the cutting force. After being softened, the four kinds of fast-growing wood were sliced into veneers with ≤ 6 mm thickness, and the cutting force was generally no more than 6850 N.

  • Researchpp 7218-7227Björngrim, N., Fjellström, P. A., and Hagman, O. (2017). "Factory-mounted and retrofit passive resistance sensors adapted to monitor moisture content in timber bridges," BioRes. 12(4), 7218-7227.AbstractArticlePDF

    The biggest threats to the longevity of a timber bridge are rot and decay. Wood protection by design, inspections, and monitoring of the bridge for elevated moisture content will ensure that the full service life of the structure can be achieved. Today’s sensors for moisture content measurements are limited in their functionality and range. This paper presents a sensor that can be both factory installed and retrofitted, which can measure the moisture content through the cross-section of the member in a timber bridge. The sensor has been mounted on Sundbron bridge during manufacturing and retrofitted on Gislaved bridge. The ensuing measurements helped to adjust a design flaw on Gislaved bridge. Monitoring of Sundbron showed that the bridge deck dried up after the bridge had been exposed to sleet and snow during the on-site assembly of the stress laminated bridge deck.

  • Researchpp 7228-7240Manyuchi, M. M., Frank, R., Mbohwa, C., and Muzenda, E. (2017). "Potential to use sorghum brewers spent grains as a boiler fuel," BioRes. 12(4), 7228-7240.AbstractArticlePDF

    The potential of using sorghum brewers spent grain (BSG) was examined for the production of bioelectricity. A local brewery company, with a production capacity of 24 tons per day of sorghum brewers spent grain as biomass waste, was used as a source of boiler fuel. After a full proximate analysis, the sorghum brewers spent grain had an average calorific value of 12.6 MJ/kg whilst coal had 19.9 MJ/kg. In addition, the BSG had a fixed carbon content of 41.6%. This indicated that it was feasible to generate electricity using sorghum brewers spent grain as a source of fuel just like coal; however the moisture content of the BSG must be controlled at minimum levels to attain high calorific values. An assumed feed rate of 1100 kg/h BSG being fed, operation at 86% efficiency, maximum pressure of 9 bars, and a steam output of 1689 kg/h were designed to supply a one megawatt (MW) turbine generator. An economic analysis was done with a total investment cost of USD$ 3.4 million, a payback period of 3.7 years, and a return on investment of 27.4%. Sorghum BSG can be provided as an alternative source of bioelectricity for the brewery industry.

  • Researchpp 7241-7254Chu, J., Jiang, W., and Wu, S. (2017). "Depolymerization characteristics during the pyrolysis of two industrial lignins," BioRes. 12(4), 7241-7254.AbstractArticlePDF

    For the value-added utilization of industrial lignin both from pulping black liquor and acid hydrolysis residues, the eucalyptus alkali lignin (AL) and enzymatic mild acidolysis corncob-to-xylitol residue lignin (EMARL) were isolated. Their pyrolysis behaviors were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The chemical bonds of EMARL were easier to break than AL at relatively lower temperatures, which was confirmed by the relationship between temperature and the differential absorbance of functional groups (such as carbonyl and hydroxyl). Based on the analysis of pyrolysis products, the value-added monomers were the main products. At 400 °C, AL mainly contained guaiacyl-type and syringyl-type compounds and the yields were 28.95% and 62.54%, respectively, while EMARL contained more guaiacyl-type products (62.96%). When the temperature was increased to 600 °C, the contents of phenol-type increased, suggesting that the demethoxylation reaction occurred during lignin pyrolysis. Study of the characteristics of pyrolysis could be significant for understanding the thermochemical depolymerization of AL and EMARL for value-added products.

  • Researchpp 7255-7267Nosáľ, E., and Reinprecht, L. (2017). "Anti-bacterial and anti-mold efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles present in melamine-laminated surfaces of particleboards," BioRes. 12(4), 7255-7267.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lamination is one of the most widely used techniques for the surface treatment of wood-based composites such as particleboards, fiberboards, etc. It is usually carried out using décor papers impregnated with amino thermosetting resins, mostly melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, or their mixture. Conventional laminates with non-bioactive surfaces are not able to reduce or stop microbial growth when contaminated with organic substances. In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were applied into their surface structure to improve their anti-bacterial and anti-mold properties. Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin, for the white décor paper impregnation, was modified with ZnO in amounts of 0.1 wt.%, 0.3 wt.%, 0.6 wt.%, and 1 wt.% and pressed onto particleboards. The presence of ZnO in the melamine-laminated surfaces somewhat improved their resistance to the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (by 20.7% or 9.5%). However, the improvement was considerable (~65% or 46.8%) against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The presence of ZnO in MF resins increased the anti-mold resistance of the intentionally contaminated laminated surfaces against the microscopic fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium brevicompactum at most by approximately 50%. ZnO nanoparticles had none or only a small negative effect on the resistance of the laminated surfaces towards aggressive chemicals and dry heat 180 °C, and their abrasion resistance decreased at most by approximately 17%.

  • Researchpp 7268-7282Ratnasingam, J., Ramasamy, G., Ioras, F., and Senin, A. (2017). "Environmental and economic impact of using logging residues as bioenergy: The case of Malaysia," BioRes. 12(4), 7268-7282.AbstractArticlePDF

    The potential use of residues from the logging process was evaluated for electrical energy generation by direct combustion. The findings were based on logging residues accrued from 1990 to 2015 and were enumerated using a 43% residue recovery rate. The available logging residues were insufficient to supply the primary electrical energy demand as well as reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. However, when coupled with other agricultural residues, the potential energy generation from biomass was significant and could not only lead to reduced fossil fuel demand, but also improve the carbon credit and provide additional employment opportunities in the bioenergy sector.

  • Researchpp 7283-7300Özkan, A., Günkaya, Z., Yapıcı, E., and Banar, M. (2017). "Adsorption of copper from waste printed circuit boards with modified orange peels," BioRes. 12(4), 7283-7300.AbstractArticlePDF

    Copper adsorption from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was studied using biosorbents derived from waste orange peels (OP). The orange peels were modified by different methods including saponification with NaOH (OP-S), crosslinking with sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate (OP-C), hydroxypropylation with propylene oxide (OP-H), and acidification with citric acid (OP-A) to increase the adsorption capacity of orange peels. Adsorption tests on the copper (Cu) model solutions were performed by using native and modified orange peels at three different temperatures (25 °C, 40 °C, and 60 °C) to determine the optimum adsorption conditions. The PCB was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed stainless steel reactor to obtain a solid product that contained only inorganic material. Metals were then leached from the solid product, and adsorption studies were realized on the leach solution under optimum adsorption conditions. According to the analyses results, the best adsorption efficiency for the Cu model solution was obtained with OP-S at 25 C for 30 min. Under these conditions, the Cu adsorption efficiency from pyrolysis solid product was approximately 86%.

  • Researchpp 7301-7310Majová, V., Horanová, S., Škulcová, A., Šima, J., and Jablonský, M. (2017). "Deep eutectic solvent delignification: Impact of initial lignin," BioRes. 12(4), 7301-7310.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study aimed to resolve the issue of the lack of detailed understanding of the effect of initial lignin content in hardwood kraft pulps on pulp delignification by deep eutectic solvents. The authors used Kappa number of the concerned pulp, intrinsic viscosity, and selectivity and efficiency of delignification as the parameters of the effect. The pulp (50 g oven dry pulp) was treated with four different DESs systems based on choline chloride with lactic acid (1:9), oxalic acid (1:1), malic acid (1:1), and system alanine:lactic acid (1:9); the results were compared to those reached by oxygen delignification. The results showed that the pulp with a higher initial lignin content had a greater fraction of easily removed lignin fragments.