Volume 12 Issue 4
- Researchpp 9452-9465Vilela, A. P., Silva, D. W., Mendes, L. M., Martins, M. A., Brandão, L. E. V., and Mendes, R. F. (2017). "Effects of the corona treatment of rubber tire particles on the properties of particleboards," BioRes. 12(4), 9452-9465.AbstractArticlePDF
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of corona treatment and rubber tire particle substitution proportion on the properties of particleboard. Treatments consisted of replacing 10%, 20%, and 30% Pinus oocarpa with rubber tire particles, as well as a treatment without added rubber. Rubber particles were submitted to corona treatment. Panels were produced with a nominal density of 650 kg.m−3, a 7% urea-formaldehyde adhesive, a temperature of 200 °C, a specific pressure of 3.92 MPa, and pressing time of 8 min. Panels were evaluated to determine their physical properties, including water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 h and 24 h of water immersion (TS2h and TS24h), and for mechanical properties including internal bond strength (IB), modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending. Using a 30% rubber tire particle substitution proportion significantly improved the TS24h and non-return rate in thickness (NRRT) of the panels. However, rubber addition significantly decreased the mechanical properties, and only panels with up to 10% rubber met the minimum requirements of the EN 312 (2003) standard for MOR, MOE, and IB in panels for internal use (including furniture).
- Researchpp 9466-9475Song, J., Hu, H., Zhang, M., Huang, B., and Yuan, Z. (2017). "Thermal aging properties and electric heating behaviors of carbon fiber paper-based electric heating wood floors," BioRes. 12(4), 9466-9475.AbstractArticlePDF
Carbon fiber (CF) paper is an excellent material for use in electric heating wood floors systems. In this paper, a CF paper-based electric heating wood floor was prepared using a hot pressure process. The thermal aging properties and electric heating behaviors of the CF paper-based wood floors were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and a temperature recorder. The CF paper exhibited excellent thermal stability, and its structure and morphology did not show any changes after exposure to 110 °C for 15 h. The surface temperature of the CF paper increased as input voltage increased. The positioning of CF paper in the middle of wood floors was believed to be the optimum design for electric heating wood floors. Theoretical calculations showed that the CF paper based electric heating wood floors (1.1 m2) could increase room (3 m × 4 m × 2.6 m) temperature by 12.9 °C.
- Researchpp 9476-9486Tong, R., Wu, C., Zhao, C., and Yu, D. (2017). "Effect of CaCO3 and/or polyaluminium chloride (PAC) treatment on the main components in prehydrolysis liquor of Whangee dissolving pulp," BioRes. 12(4), 9476-9486.AbstractArticlePDF
Lignin removal is essential for the value-added utilization of hemicelluloses in the prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of a kraft-based Whangee (a genus of bamboo) dissolving pulp production. In this work, a novel process concept was proposed for a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) treatment of PHL. The results revealed that the optimum dosage of an individual system of CaCO3 and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) treatment was 1.7% and 16.0%, at which the total sugars retention was 95.7% and 94.4%, the acid-soluble lignin removal 6.09% and 9.29%, and the acid-soluble lignin selectivity 58.6% and 62.4%, respectively. Alternatively, CaCO3 and 16.0% PAC were employed in a dual system to remove the lignin. Dual vs. individual system results showed that the highest total sugars retention (97.3%) and acid-soluble lignin selectivity (77.5%) occurred at the optimum dosage (2.0%/16.0%) of a dual CaCO3/PAC system, and the highest mannose (84.2%) and glucose retention (96.5%) with a dual system of 1.0%/16.0% CaCO3/PAC. Additionally, in the dual system, the adding order of 1.0% CaCO3 and then 16.0% PAC showed that 1.0%/16.0% CaCO3/PAC was more effective than 16.0%/1.0% PAC/CaCO3.
- Researchpp 9487-9501Gamache, S. L/, Espinoza, O., and Aro, M. (2017). "Professional consumer perceptions about thermally modified wood," BioRes. 12(4), 9487-9501.AbstractArticlePDF
Thermal modification of wood is a chemical-free treatment that results in improved durability, enhanced dimensional stability, and a change in color throughout the entire thickness of the wood. Thermally Modified Wood (TMW) provides an opportunity for sustainable and value-added uses for timber resources that are underutilized or affected by disease or pests. TMW has commercial success in Europe, but it is in the early stages of market adoption in the United States. The main goal of this research was to identify the challenges and opportunities for TMW in the U.S. by investigating professional adopters’ perceptions of various decking materials, including thermally modified wood. In-person and online surveys were conducted for this purpose. Participants perceived that the most favorable attributes of TMW are Durability, Environmental Performance, and Aesthetics. Professional users of decking materials also considered the Cost of TMW to be relatively high, but competitive with that of tropical hardwoods and wood-plastic composites. A block of conjoint analysis questions helped to uncover the target audience’s priorities and tradeoffs that they are willing to make between the different product attributes. Results from this research are useful to inform the formulation of effective marketing strategies.
- Reviewpp 9502-9519Razali, N., Hameed Sultan, M. T., and Jawaid, M. (2017). "A Review on detecting and characterizing damage mechanisms of synthetic and natural fiber based composites," BioRes. 12(4), 9502-9519.AbstractArticlePDF
The damage to composite structures caused by impact events is one of the most critical behaviors that inhibit the widespread application of composite material. As the application of synthetic and natural based composite material increases over time, improved knowledge of composite damage in areas such as automotive and aerospace is exceedingly necessary. It is important to study and understand the damage mechanism of composite structures to produce effective designs. The failure caused by damage in structural design can result in unintended consequences. Extensive research has been conducted to detect impact damage in synthetic fiber. There are various methods to identify and characterize the damage. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent literature focusing on the broader scope of impact damage and incipient thermal damage of synthetic and natural fiber-based composites. In this report, the available research is reviewed by considering all aspects related to damage in composite materials, particularly the work done on detecting and characterizing damage mechanisms of synthetic and natural fiber-based composites.
- Reviewpp 9520-9537McDonald, J. D., and Kerekes, R. (2017). "Pragmatic mathematical models of wet pressing in papermaking," BioResources, 12(4), 9520-9537.AbstractArticlePDF
This paper compares mathematical models developed over the years to estimate the moisture content of paper after wet pressing on paper machines. Models that assume all loading pressure to act upon water are discussed in detail. In contrast, most conventional models assume that pressure splits between a hydraulic component causing water removal and a structural component supported by the fibres. This assumption is shown to be questionable in light of theoretical considerations and experimental evidence. Despite their simpler nature, models based on hydraulic forces alone are often better able to account for experimental observations. The Decreasing Permeability (DP) model is the most complete model of this form and includes all major variables affecting pressing on paper machines, thereby enabling evaluation of key factors such as the relative importance of dewatering under flow-controlled and pressure-controlled conditions together with rewetting.
- Reviewpp 9538-9555Ghiyasinasab, M., Lehoux, N., and Ménard, S. (2017). "Production phases and market for timber gridshell structures: A state-of-the-art review," BioRes. 12(4), 9538-9555.AbstractArticlePDF
Timber gridshell is a structure with a doubly curved shape that is made of grid timber laths. Gridshell structure can be a solution of interest in modern free-form structures that are environmentally sustainable. However, there is a lack of academic research focusing on the potential markets and the production stages based on this construction technology. The aim of this literature review is to investigate the gridshell structure to identify its global production process, as well as the partners involved in the architectural examples studied. A review of both peer-reviewed scientific articles and grey literature resources (e.g., magazines, web pages, etc.) was conducted to gather information about timber gridshells. The design examples found were categorized as small, medium, and large gridshells. The categorization is based on the size and level of complexity of the design examples. Production phases and partners involved in the design and construction of these structures were identified for each category. Furthermore, the motivations and barriers to using gridshell designs in construction, and the potential market segments were determined.
- Reviewpp 9556-9661Hubbe, M. A., Tayeb, P., Joyce, M., Tyagi, P., Kehoe, M., Dimic-Misic, K., and Pal, L. (2017). "Rheology of nanocellulose-rich aqueous suspensions: A Review," BioRes. 12(4), 9556-9661.AbstractArticlePDF
The flow characteristics of dilute aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and related products in dilute aqueous suspensions could be of great importance for many emerging applications. This review article considers publications dealing with the rheology of nanocellulose aqueous suspensions in the absence of matrix materials. In other words, the focus is on systems in which the cellulosic particles themselves – dependent on their morphology and the interactive forces between them – largely govern the observed rheological effects. Substantial progress in understanding rheological phenomena is evident in the large volume of recent publications dealing with such issues including the effects of flow history, stratification of solid and fluid layers during testing, entanglement of nanocellulose particles, and the variation of inter-particle forces by changing the pH or salt concentrations, among other factors. Better quantification of particle shape and particle-to-particle interactions may provide advances in future understanding. Despite the very complex morphology of highly fibrillated cellulosic nanomaterials, progress is being made in understanding their rheology, which supports their usage in applications such as coating, thickening, and 3D printing.