Volume 10 Issue 4
- Editorialpp 6305-6309Hubbe, M. A. (2015)."Oops, I thought that those books had been deacidified," BioRes. 10(4), 6305-6309.AbstractArticlePDF
Major libraries have been placing increasing reliance upon non-aqueous mass deacidification in an effort to avoid hydrolytic decomposition of the cellulose during storage of bound volumes. Such decomposition is especially a problem when the printing papers used in manufacture of the books have been prepared under acidic conditions, using aluminum sulfate. But there is reason to doubt that the widely used non-aqueous treatments, in which “alkaline reserve” particles are deposited in the void spaces of the paper, can achieve neutralization of acidity throughout the paper structure under the conditions most commonly used for treatment and storage. Anecdotal evidence suggests that alkaline particles such as CaCO3, MgO, Mg(OH)2, or ZnO can be present for long periods of time adjacent to acidic parts of cellulosic fibers without neutralization of the acidity, especially the acidity within the fibers. If these phenomena can be better understood, then there may be an opportunity to use a high-humidity treatment of certain “deacidified” books in order to achieve more pervasive protection against acid-induced degradation.
- Editorialpp 6310-6313Gamelas, J. A. F., and Ferraz, E. (2015). "Composite films based on nanocellulose and nanoclay minerals as high strength materials with gas barrier capabilities: Key points and challenges," BioRes. 10(4), 6310-6313.AbstractArticlePDF
Composites of nanocellulose with layered silicates have recently emerged as a new type of composite materials offering superior strength, as well as thermal and gas barrier properties. These organic-inorganic hybrid composites with a nacre-like structure can be obtained from renewable resources and are environmentally friendly. They can potentially be presented as a serious alternative in the near future to several polymers or other polymer-inorganic composites, for applications in food packaging or electronic devices. The discussion here will be directed to: what are the new opportunities and challenges that arise for these materials aiming at their competition with well-established materials in the market.
- Editorialpp 6314-6317Hao, X., Liu, C., Cao, H., Liu, Y., Peng, H., and Shen, J. (2015). "Use of byproduct from cellulosic ethanol production as an additive for concrete: A possible win-win strategy?" BioRes. 10(4), 6314-6317.AbstractArticlePDF
Technologists are facing increasing demands to achieve ecologically sustainable industrial practices. Currently the concrete industry is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the scaling up of cellulosic ethanol technology has not been a very easy task. In this context, the integration of “greener” concrete with cellulosic ethanol technology may open up promising possibilities. The solid byproducts from cellulosic ethanol production process have been demonstrated to increase the strength of concrete structures when used as a partial cement replacement. Such a delicate integration can also lead to reduction in both carbon footprint and product cost. The possible commercialization of the integrated technologies would provide win-win benefits for both industries.
- Editorialpp 6318-6320Ali, O. F., and Koukoulas, A. A. (2015). "Approaches to energy pellet cost and quality optimization" BioRes. 10(4), 6318-6320.AbstractArticlePDF
As the global demand for biomass-derived energy pellets continues to expand, industry focus is expected to quickly migrate from project development to ways of lowering operating costs. Process optimization and the utilization of low-cost feedstocks are expected to be of special interest. This new focus will present opportunities for targeted research that can utilize low-value wood and biomass feedstocks, increase yields, and improve product quality.
- Researchpp 6321-6331Feng, J., Xu, K., Shi, Q., Huang, X., and Li, K. (2015). "Algal decay resistance of conventional and novel wood-based composites," BioRes. 10(4), 6321-6331.AbstractArticlePDF
Measures of the resistance to algal decay of conventional (medium density fiberboard [MDF] and plywood) and novel wood-based composites (WPC) were investigated in the same or varying wood species by using an artificial accelerated test with four mixed algal suspensions (Chlorella vulgaris, Ulothrix sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Oscillatoria sp.). The morphology characterization of the surface and fracture of the specimens was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a digital instrument. The pH value and the mass loss rate of the different wood species were also tested. The results showed that the algal resistance of the MDF and plywood were superior to that of the WPC of the same wood species. Furthermore, the algal resistance capacity of WPC made from various wood species were ranked as: Liquidambar formosana > Cunninghamia lanceolata and Melaleuca leucadendra > Ricinus communis > Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla and Pinus massoniana. There was a close relationship between the pH value and the algal resistance level; as the pH value increased, the alga resistance of the WPC also increased. The algal colonization only had a negative effect on the appearance of the samples.
- Researchpp 6332-6347Jiang, Y., Nie, S., Liang, D., Zhang, N., Wang, S., and Song, X. (2015). "Effects of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pre-extraction on bamboo lignin chemistry and other bamboo chemical components," BioRes. 10(4), 6332-6347.AbstractArticlePDF
This paper aimed to investigate the reasons for improved properties of bamboo alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP), such as relatively high brightness and low post-colour number, by alkali hydrogen peroxide pre-extraction (AHPP) treatment. It was found that AHPP could affect the dissolution of 1% sodium hydroxide extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, and acid-soluble lignin. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-NMR) illustrated that carboxyl, syringyl, guaiacyl, acetyl, and methoxyl groups of the milled wood lignin (MWL) in bamboo were degraded slightly after AHPP treatment. However, some lignin-like structures, the links of α-O-4, β-O-4, and some carbohydrates such as xylan, α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose, and β-mannose in lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) were degraded noticeably. The analysis of UV spectrophotometry indicated that AHPP treatment was conductive to the degradation of some chromophores in MWL. The degradation of MWL and LCC under simulated AHPP conditions showed consistency with the above results.
- Researchpp 6348-6362Hou, J., Fu, F., Lu, K., and Chen, L. (2015). "Highly conductive fiberboards made with carbon and wood fibers," BioRes. 10(4), 6348-6362.AbstractArticlePDF
Carbon fibers (CFs) were mixed with wood fibers using the solution blend method to make highly conductive fiberboards. The microstructure, conductivity, shielding effectiveness (SE), and mechanical properties of fiberboards filled with CFs of various lengths and contents were investigated. The uniform distribution of CFs formed an excellent, three-dimensional conductive network. The CF-filled fiberboards exhibited evidence of percolation and piezoresistivity. A greater content of shorter CFs was necessary to realize the effects of percolation. The corresponding thresholds of fiberboards containing CFs of 2, 5, and 10 mm in length were 1.5%, 0.75%, and 0.5%, respectively. The volume resistance of fiberboards tended to be stable as the external pressure increased to 1.4 MPa. The volume resistivity of fiberboards reached equilibrium when the CF content was 10%. The fiberboards with greater than 10% CF content exhibited a SE of 30 dB above the average, yet they met the requirements for commercial application. The mechanical properties of fiberboards were investigated, and CFs were found to enhance the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE). Therefore, it was concluded that fiberboards containing CF of 5 mm in length exhibited the best performance between percolation threshold and steady CF content.
- Researchpp 6363-6377Fatima, R., Ahmed, S., Arshad, M., and Sahi, S. T. (2015). "Effect of seasoning of different woods on resistance against Odontotermes obesus (Ramb.) under laboratory and field choice and no-choice tests," BioRes. 10(4), 6363-6377.AbstractArticlePDF
The effects of seasoning on resistance of sapwood and heartwood of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Acacia nilotica Wild., and Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jacks against consumption by Odontotermes obesus (Ramb.) was evaluated in no-choice and choice laboratory and field experiments. Seasoning was done in an oven at 60, 80, and 100 °C for 10 and 15 days. The amount of wood consumed generally decreased as the drying temperature increased, indicating that the drying process contributed to termites’ resistance of the woods and made them unpalatable for the termites. The woods that were dried at 100 °C for 15 days showed a significant reduction in weight after the consumption by termites compared to the woods dried at 60 and 80 °C and control both in laboratory and field trials. Similarly, the wood that was dried at 100 °C for 15 days showed highest termite mortality rate in laboratory no choice and choice tests. Consequently, the termites showed maximum feeding propensity on unseasoned P. wallichiana and the minimum on seasoned D. sissoo measured with significant differences in weight loss and mortality. Based on the feeding indicated by wood weight loss, the descending order of preference was Dalbergia sissoo > Acacia nilotica > Pinus wallichiana. The importance of wood seasoning for termites’ resistance is also discussed.
- Researchpp 6388-6394Mirski, R., and Dziurka, D. (2015). "Low-density oriented strand boards," BioRes. 10(4), 6388-6394.AbstractArticlePDF
This study evaluated the possibility of producing low-density oriented strand boards (OSB) from industrial chips of Pinus sylvestris L. Statistical analysis was used to determine the lowest possible density of resulting OSBs meeting the requirements of EN standard 300 for type 3 boards. The analysis revealed that this type of board could be obtained with a density as low as 425 kg/m3, corresponding to a compression ratio of about 0.85 for pine wood. An important parameter was the quality of the pine chips, the dimensions of which should be as close as possible to the dimensions of standard wood strands.
- Researchpp 6378-6387Nordin, N. A., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., Salim, N., Nasir, M., Sato, M., and Hiziroglu, S. (2015). "Effect of adhesive spreading rate on the performance of laminated compressed oil palm trunks," BioRes. 10(4), 6378-6387.AbstractArticlePDF
The large availability and cheap price of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) trunk makes it an attractive raw material for value-added applications, but its low density and high carbohydrate content are highly undesirable. In this work, oil palm trunk (OPT) was steam-pretreated and compressed at high temperature. The compressed OPT was laminated using polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) using either 250 or 500 g/m2 adhesive spread rate (ASR). Soil burial testing was performed for three months on two different samples to study the deterioration and weight loss by bio-organisms. The laminated, compressed OPT formed with high PVAc ASR was found to be more durable against bio-organisms. The thermal stability of the compressed OPT was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and it was observed that the weight loss was lower for steam-pretreated samples compared to those without steam pretreatment. Moisture absorption-desorption testing of compressed OPT was performed, and a hysteresis curve was generated. It was found that laminated, compressed OPTs with 500 g/m2 ASR had lower moisture absorption than those with 250 g/m2 ASR.