NC State
  • Researchpp 8239-8256Li, M., Li, W., Liu, Q., Jameel, H., Chang, H. M., An, S., and Ma, L. (2016). "A two-step conversion of corn stover into furfural and levulinic acid in a water/gamma-valerolactone system," BioRes. 11(4), 8239-8256.AbstractArticlePDF

    A two-step hydrolysis method was evaluated as a potential means of obtaining high yields of furfural and levulinic acid from corn stover using sulfuric acid as catalyst in a water/gamma-valerolactone (GVL) system. The corn stover underwent a high-temperature hydrolysis process to produce levulinic acid, followed by a low-temperature hydrolysis process to produce furfural. A series of experiments were conducted to explore the relationship between the different reaction parameters and the final yields of furfural and levulinic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures together with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to further elaborate on the hydrolysis results. Molar yields of about 70.65% furfural and 57.7% levulinic acid were obtained by applying this method with a low temperature of 140 °C and a high temperature of 190 °C, together with 0.2 M of sulfuric acid used as the catalyst. These results indicated that this was an effective way to obtain satisfactory yields of furfural and levulinic acid from corn stover.

  • Researchpp 8257-8268Khosravani, A., Asadollahzadeh, M., Rahmaninia, M., Bahramifar, N., and Azadfallah, M. (2016). "The effect of external and internal application of organosilicon compounds on the hydrophobicity of recycled OCC paper," BioRes. 11(4), 8257-8268.AbstractArticlePDF

    There are various applications of organosilicon compounds in papermaking. Additionally, organosilicons have been applied to improve the water resistance of some lignocellulosic materials. The performance, however, of such compounds for the hydrophobation of paperboard is unclear. In this study, an organosilicon solution was internally and externally applied to old corrugated container (OCC) paperboard at ambient temperature. Examination of the infrared spectra of treated paperboard confirmed the presence of CH2 groups and hydrophobic organic chains of organosilicon in the treated paperboard. Both internal and external treatment of the paperboard helped its resistance to water, though external treatment was more successful in the late reduction of the contact angle of water droplets and also in reducing water uptake.

  • Researchpp 8269-8276Maan, P., Bharti, A. K., Gautam, S., and Dutt, D. (2016). "Screening of important factors for xylanase and cellulase production from the fungus C. cinerea RM-1 NFCCI-3086 through Plackett-Burman experimental design," BioRes. 11(4), 8269-8276.AbstractArticlePDF

    A Plackett-Burman design was employed to evaluate the effect of different culture conditions associated with xylanase and cellulase production by the fungus C. cinerea RM-1 NFCCI 3086 using agro-residues as substrate. Eight variables were assessed for their significance on xylanase and cellulase production under solid state fermentation. The optimal culture conditions for xylanase production were developed by maintaining the variables of temperature, incubation period, substrate concentration, particle size, inoculum size, and inoculum age at their higher levels, while keeping pH and moisture ratio at their lower levels. For cellulase production, temperature, incubation period, substrate concentration, inoculum size, and inoculum age were fixed at their higher levels, and pH, particle size, and moisture level were kept at their lower levels. Of the eight variables, temperature, incubation period, and pH had significant influence on xylanase and cellulase production. These three variables can be further optimized for increased enzyme production.

  • Researchpp 8277-8284Pérez, N., Segovia, F., Salinas, C., and Ananías, R. (2016). "Perpendicular mechano-sorptive strains during moisture desorption from Eucalyptus nitens specimens," BioRes. 11(4), 8277-8284.AbstractArticlePDF

    The purpose of this paper was to determine the mechano-sorptive strains produced during desorption of moisture from Eucalyptus nitens specimens, from a perspective of modeling wood drying stresses. Eucalyptus nitens samples were tested in the radial and tangential directions. The mechano-sorptive strain was measured by cantilever bending during desorption. The runs were performed in a conditioning chamber at constant low temperature and variable equilibrium moisture content. Four load levels were considered for testing. The results showed that the mechano-sorptive strain during desorption of moisture was proportional to applied stress and reached the maximum value in the tangential direction. Also, the mechano-sorption coefficient depended on wood orientation and reached the maximum value of 5.46 × 10-2 in the tangential direction.

  • Researchpp 8285-8296Turkoglu, T., Baysal, E., Yuksel, M., Peker, H., Sacli, C., Kureli, I., and Toker, H. (2016). "Mechanical properties of impregnated and heat treated Oriental beech wood," BioRes. 11(4), 8285-8296.AbstractArticlePDF

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate mechanical properties such as the modulus of rupture (MOR) and compression strength parallel to grain (CSPG) of impregnated and heat-treated Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) wood. Some copper and boron containing impregnation chemicals such as Wolmanit CX-8 (WCX-8) and Celcure AC-500 (CAC-500) were used. Wood specimens were impregnated 2% aqueous solution of the chemicals according to ASTM D1413-07e1 standard. The wood specimens were heated at 150 and 175 °C for 4 and 8 h, respectively. Results showed that both impregnation and heat treatment decreased the MOR and CSPG of Oriental beech wood. The MOR losses of Oriental beech after both treatments were higher than CSPG losses. The largest reduction of MOR and CSPG were observed with 51.5% and 15.5% for CAC-500 impregnated and heated at 175 °C for 8 h. Except for WCX-8 impregnation and heat treatment at 150 °C for 4 and 8 h, the MOR values of impregnated and heat-treated Oriental beech wood were lower than only heat-treated Oriental beech wood. It was also found that the CSPG values of impregnated and heat-treated Oriental beech wood were higher than only heat-treated Oriental beech wood, except for impregnation and heat treatment at 175 °C for 8 h.

  • Researchpp 8297-8306Ratnasingam, J., Choon Liat, L., Ramasamy, G., Mohamed, S., and Senin, A. L. (2016). "Attributes of sawn timber important for the manufacturers of value-added wood products in Malaysia," BioRes. 11(4), 8297-8306.AbstractArticlePDF
    The objective of this study was to assess the attributes of selected sawn timber species for door, flooring, and furniture manufacturing in Malaysia. Sawn timber attributes are important for value-added wood products manufacturing in terms of market opportunities and consumer preferences. A questionnaire was distributed to 30 value-added wood products manufacturers, in which there were 10 manufacturers in each category: door, flooring, and furniture. The study evaluated three aspects: the choice of sawn timber species for particular types of wood products, the source of origin of sawn timber, and the attributes that determined the choice of the sawn timber species for a particular product. The common local sawn timber species include rubberwood, meranti, merpauh, merbau, and kempas species, while poplar, oak, cherry, and pine represent imported species. It was found that cost, supply/availability, product specification, and market/buyer preferences were among the most important factors influencing the selection of sawn timber species for the manufacture of value-added wood products. However, these attributes were not statistically significant among the group of manufacturers and source of origin, respectively.
  • Researchpp 8307-8324Yan, F., Xu, K., Li, D., and Zhang, X. (2016). "Hazard assessment for biomass gasification station using general set pair analysis," BioRes. 11(4), 8307-8324.AbstractArticlePDF
    Hazard assessment is critical for a biomass gasification station because it includes various hazardous factors. Set pair analysis (SPA) is a convenient and effective method for hazard assessment, but it has limitations, including (1) the inability to reflect the difference when the data belong to the same hazard grade and (2) the assessment results lack precision and accuracy. This study proposes an improved method designated as general set pair analysis (GSPA). Connection measure degree (CMD), which is based on the cosine function, as well as weighting deviation degree (WDD), relative membership degree (RMD), and comprehensive index (CI) were proposed in GSPA, and the algorithms were generated. The calculated results of these different methods can be utilized to overcome the shortcomings of SPA during hazard assessment. A case study of two biomass gasification stations in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, Northeast China, was performed. The hazard assessment results of the GSPA were compared with those of SPA. The results showed that GSPA is a more effective, precise, and accurate method for hazard assessment of a biomass gasification station.
  • Researchpp 8325-8343Timar, M. C., Varodi, A., Hacibektasoglu, M., and Campean, M. (2016). "Color and FTIR analysis of chemical changes in beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) after light streaming and heat treatment in two different environments," BioRes. 11(4), 8325-8343.AbstractArticlePDF
    Color and chemical changes were investigated in beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) following light steaming and further heat treatment for 2.5 h at 200 °C by two techniques (industrial ThermoWood versus a laboratory procedure in the presence of air). Colour changes were evaluated in the CIE Lab system, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) investigation was employed to highlight and compare the associated chemical changes. Light steaming caused only minor chemical changes (limited hydrolysis of hemicelluloses) not ready detectable by FTIR. In contrast, heat treatments caused visible changes in the FTIR spectra, especially in the region 1800 to 1500 cm-1, consisting mainly in a clear decrease of the absorption band for conjugated carbonyls at 1643 cm-1 and a slight apparent increase of the absorption bands for lignin at 1506 and 1595 cm-1. A significant variation of the ratios of relevant absorption bands indicated complex chemical changes, including hydrolytic, oxidative, and condensation reactions. FTIR ratios and the mass loss values in the two heat treatments relate, both indicating a more advanced modification in the case of the ThermoWood process.
  • Researchpp 8344-8354Mirski, R., Dziurka, D., and Derkowski, A. (2016). "Properties of oriented strand boards with external layers made of non-strand chips," BioRes. 11(4), 8344-8354.AbstractArticlePDF
    This study evaluated the possibility of producing oriented strand boards (OSB) from non-strand chips. Properties of the produced boards were compared with commercially available OSB/3. Research has shown that replacing the strand chips of external layers with smaller chips allowed for the manufacturing of OSB/3 using chips up to four times shorter than standard strand chips. Oriented strand board manufacturers should consider preparing a new standard and introducing the market to a new type of OSB with very good mechanical properties and made of selected strand chips comprising one of the fractions obtained during screening.
  • Researchpp 8355-8363Sánchez, J. H., Fajardo, M. E., and Quintana, G. C. (2016). "Viscoelastic properties of pulp suspensions of bleached sugarcane bagasse: Effects of consistency and temperature," BioRes. 11(4), 8355-8363.AbstractArticlePDF
    The viscoelasticity of pulp suspensions of bleached sugarcane bagasse was studied in a stress/shear rate-controlled rheometer using concentric cylinders geometry. Results for the elastic (G’) and viscous (G”) modulus, as well as complex viscosity (n*), are presented as a function of the suspension consistency (1.0 wt% ≤ Cm ≤ 6.0 wt%) and temperature (20, 40, and 60 °C). The results show an effect of the concentration and temperature on the viscoelastic moduli and cross-over point. A power law model was fitted to the experimental results for elastic modulus, It was found that the complex viscosity exhibited shear-thinning behavior for all the suspensions. Only the pulp concentration had an influence on this material function.