NC State
  • Editorialpp 5016-5017Olendorf, R. K. (2019). "Toward a more open, trusted, and efficient research environment," BioRes. 14(3), 5016-5017.AbstractArticlePDF

    Open science is becoming increasingly popular. Both funders and publishers require data be made public. The goal is to make research easier to validate, more trusted, and to hasten the speed of discovery. However, due to lack of training, lack of resources and lack of time, researchers often fail to make much of the content they generate public, and they also fail to adequately document and organize it. Here I make an argument that researchers should try to make all their research content public. I briefly describe best practices that should both result in a better product and be less burdensome on the researcher. I also argue that if done properly, opening up their research can have multiple benefits for the research and their career.

  • Editorialpp 5018-5021Cao, D., Zhang, B., Yang, M., Luo, F., Yang, X., and Zhu, S. (2019). "Use of single atom catalysis for improvement of lignocellulosic conversion," BioRes. 14(3), 5018-5021.AbstractArticlePDF

    Economical and efficient transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels, chemicals, and materials has drawn much attention in recent years. Catalytic chemical conversion is one of the most widely used technical ways in lignocellulosic transformation because of its high efficiency. However, the traditional chemical conversion is often carried out at high temperatures and large amounts of byproducts are formed during the conversion process. This is due in part because the used catalyst has low activity, selectivity, and stability. This causes the traditional chemical conversion process to have a high cost and to encounter difficulty in industrialization. The single atom catalysis approach provides a promising solution to improve the traditional chemical conversion process and decrease its process cost. Compared with the traditional catalyst, the single atom catalyst has not only lower cost but also higher activity, selectivity, and stability. It is becoming a new frontier in lignocellulosic conversion. This editorial will give a brief discussion about opportunities and challenges of using single atom catalysis for improvement of the lignocellulosic conversion.

  • Editorialpp 5022-5024Rogers, J. (2019). "The use of social media and its impact for research," BioRes. 14(3), 5022-5024.AbstractArticlePDF

    Social media is an omnipresent part of everyday life. It provides users with an easy way to engage and connect with others without meeting face-to-face. This form of communication provides a lot of opportunity for companies and individuals to reach a massive audience. What is the purpose of social media, and how does it tie into science? Well, you see, it all depends on who you know and how active your social media presence is. Is there a benefit for sharing research across social media? The benefits of social media stem from active participation and the generation of new attractive content from an individual. Research is about producing new information, and social media offers unique opportunities to present new content.

  • Researchpp 5025-5044Yang, T., Li, W., Liu, Q., Su, M., Zhang, T., and Ma, J. (2019). "Synthesis of maleic acid from biomass-derived furfural in the presence of KBr/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) catalyst and hydrogen peroxide," BioRes. 14(3), 5025-5044.AbstractPDF

    A one-step, liquid-phase hydrogen peroxide reaction system, which was heterogeneously catalyzed by KBr-doped graphitic carbon nitride (KBr/g-C3N4), was developed for the conversion of furfural to maleic acid (MA). At first, a 68.0% MA yield was achieved in a homogeneous reaction system catalyzed by KBr-KOH. Next, a series of K-doped g-C3N4 catalysts with various potassium salts (KBr, KCl, KNO3, and KOH) was synthesized and tested for the conversion of furfural to MA, 2-buten-1,4-olide (FRO), and succinic acid (SA). When comparing the various K-doped g-C3N4 catalysts, KBr/g-C3N4 enhanced MA selectivity, which resulted in complete furfural conversion and a 70.4% MA yield (at 100 °C for 180 min). Furthermore, a synergistic interaction was observed between KBr and the g-C3N4 support, which could explain why KBr/g-C3N4 had the highest MA selectivity.

  • Researchpp 5045-5058Barreto, M. I. M., De Araujo, V., Cortez-Barbosa, J., Christoforo, A. L., and Moura, J. D. M. (2019). "Structural performance analysis of cross-laminated timber-bamboo (CLTB)," BioRes. 14(3), 5045-5058.AbstractPDF

    Construction systems based on cross-laminated timber (CLT) have versatility in material development and are an interesting alternative for construction. This study evaluated the structural performance of cross-laminated timber-bamboo produced from wood (Pinus spp.) and bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus). Panels were produced by strips (wood and bamboo) assorted, under non-destructive structural grading, to support a better panel configuration. Small-length pine pieces were also included in the study, considering their low added-value and underutilization in sawmills from Telêmaco Borba, Brazil. Gluing tests of small specimens were performed to evaluate the bonding quality of three adhesives: melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF), isocyanate polymeric emulsion (IPE), and castor oil-based resin (COR). Shear stress strength parallel to grain between bamboo and wood showed the best performance for MUF resin. After preliminary gluing testing, eight cross-laminated panels were produced with MUF adhesive in a three-layered configuration, with transversal orientation: two external bamboo layers and a central layer of pine wood. Stiffness and rupture strength values were above those specified by the ANSI/APA PGR 320 (2012) standard. Elasticity and rupture moduli were 13,310 MPa and 65 MPa, respectively, showing good potential of this composite for structural uses.

  • Researchpp 5059-5070Carrasco, E. V. M., Passos, L. B., Amorim, S. T. A., Ramos, F. M. G., Rodrigues, F. C., and Mantilla, J. N. R. (2019). "Glulam wood sleepers manufacturing from recycling discharge sleepers: An engineering recycling project," BioRes., 14(3), 5059-5070. AbstractPDF

    Feasibility was studied for the manufacture of glulam sleepers using wood sleepers that had been discharged or sold at low prices by railway companies. In principle, an engineering recycling project of this nature could contribute to the reduction of non-renewable natural resource extraction. The manufacturing stages of glulam recycled wood sleepers are shown. Ultrasonic tests were used for the classification of the wood sleepers’ parts and wood strength optimization. The results showed that it was possible to obtain one wood sleeper from the recycling of four or five used sleepers.

  • Reviewpp to be addedHubbe, M. A., Chandra, R. P., Dogu, D., and van Velzen, S. T. J. (2019). "Analytical staining of cellulosic materials: A Review," BioRes. 14(3), Page numbers to be added.AbstractArticlePDF

    Numerous dyes and fluorescent compounds, as reported in the literature, exhibit specificity in the staining of materials associated with lignocellulosic fibers and their chemical components, including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Such effects long have provided analysts with convenient ways to identify cellulosic fiber types, products of different pulping methods, degrees of mechanical refining, estimates of accessibility to enzymes, and localization of chemical components within microscopic sections of cellulosic material. Analytical staining procedures allow for the facile estimation or quantification using simple methods such as light microscopy or UV-vis spectroscopy. More recent developments related to confocal laser micrometry, using fluorescent probes, has opened new dimensions in staining technology. The present review seeks to answer whether the affinity of certain colored compounds to certain cellulose-related domains can improve our understanding of those stained materials – either in terms of their fine-scale porous structure or their ability to accommodate certain colored compounds having suitable solubility characteristics. It is proposed here that successful staining ought to be viewed as being a three-dimensional phenomenon that depends on both the physical dimensions of the colored compounds and also on functional groups that influence their interactions with different components of lignocellulosic materials. Published information about the mechanisms of staining action as well as characteristics of different stain types is reviewed.

  • Researchpp 5071-5079Hansted, F. A. S., Hansted, A. L. S., Padilha, E. R. D., Caraschi, J. C., Goveia, D., and Inácio de Campos, C. (2019). "The use of nanocellulose in the production of medium density particleboard panels and the modification of its physical properties," BioRes. 14(3), 5071-5079. AbstractPDF

    Wood-based panel applications recently have expanded and become increasingly competitive, especially within the furniture and civil construction industries. To remain competitive, such products must present physical properties that meet consumer needs. In this context, the incorporation of nanomaterials is gaining momentum, mainly as a means to improve the physical characteristics of panels, thereby expanding their applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of medium density particleboard (MDP) panels after adding various proportions of nanocellulose in place of water to the urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive in MDP panel production. The results showed that the addition of nanocellulose resulted in no significant statistical difference in the density and moisture content of the panels. When tested for thickness swelling, only the panel with 100% nanocellulose solution exhibited a significantly higher value. The panels were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, which showed that the addition of nanocellulose led to a more polished, less irregular surface. Such physical effects of nanocellulose can potentially make panels more suitable for coating applications. The feasibility of coatings on nanocellulose MDP panels can be verified through future tests to determine the surface roughness of the panels.

  • Researchpp 5080-5096Onthong, K., and Charoensuk, J. (2019). "A new method for zone development observation for updraft rice husk gasification," BioRes. 14(3), 5080-5096.AbstractPDF

    Experiments were carried out with a new method for assessing an updraft gasification reactor. An attached side door enabled the investigation of zone development by stopping air supply at specific times, when the thickness of biomass, char, and ash layers were measured. Development in zone thicknesses of biomass, char, and ash with time associated with temperature distribution provided information about the speed of flame propagation inside the reactor. Initially, pyrolysis and volatile combustion occurred, as evidenced by the high mass loss rate and high growth rate of the char layer. Shrinkage in the char layer took place later, and this phenomenon was governed by char glowing, which was relatively slow in mass loss rate. Finally, the fully developed char layer was obtained. The results from four different air mass fluxes under updraft configuration were presented, showing the differences in layer development. Temperature profiles at each time step revealed that the location of peak temperature coincided with the location of ash-char interface for every air mass flux. This effect was due to the high energy release during the oxidation of fixed carbon.

  • Researchpp 5097-5108Yin, H., Lin, Q., You, Z., Qiu, J., Zhang, E., and Chen, N. (2019). "Investigation of an environmentally friendly incense consisting of soy-based adhesive and wood powder," BioRes. 14(3), 5097-5108.AbstractPDF

    This study investigated the feasibility of an environmentally friendly incense consisting of a soy-based adhesive and miscellaneous wood powder (MWP). Key properties, such as water absorption, burning speed, density, and tensile strength, were examined. The suitable adhesive usage amount for the preparation of incense was 31.8%. When the soy-based adhesive contained 3% polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), the water absorption, burning speed, density, and tensile strength of the incense were 24.6%, 13.93%, 0.713 g/cm3, and 1.01 MPa, respectively. Incense made of soy-based adhesive with PVOH displayed a higher tensile strength and decreased moisture resistance. The denser structure and even distribution of the MWP was observed via scanning electron microscopy of the incense with soy-based adhesive modified by 3% PVOH. When paraffin wax was added with the MWP, the incense had a higher moisture resistance, but the effects on the tensile strength were negligible. A combination of PVOH-modified soy-based adhesive, paraffin wax, and MWP was found to be suitable for preparing an environmentally friendly incense.