NC State
  • Researchpp 105-116Wu, Q., Shao, W., Zhang, Y., Su, T., Zhao, X., Kong, F., Xia, N., and Wang, Z. (2020). "Use of lignin-based carbons for decolorization of wastewater dyes," BioRes. 15(1), 105-116. AbstractPDF

    Hierarchical porous carbons were prepared from several common lignins, including sodium lignosulfonate (SLS), alkali lignin (AL), and calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) via one-step carbonization at 800 °C for 10 h without oxygen or any additional templating/activation agent for the decolorization of dyes from wastewater. The obtained carbons showed high porosity and microporous-mesoporous-macroporous hierarchical porous structures. The specific surface areas of SLS-C, AL-C, and CLS-C were 346 m2/g, 405 m2/g, and 512 m2/g, respectively. The total pore volumes of SLS-C, AL-C, and CLS-C were 0.12 cm3/g, 0.21 cm3/g, and 0.28 cm3/g, respectively. The obtained carbon materials displayed excellent adsorption-decolorization abilities for 5 dyes, including ethyl violet, malachite green, cationic brilliant red, acid blue 92, and direct red 23. The concentrations of these 5 dyes in wastewater were reduced by SLS-C from 20 mg/L to 0.12 mg/L, 0.20 mg/L, 0.32 mg/L, 0.78 mg/L, and 3.77 mg/L, respectively, over a 60 min treatment. AL-C reduced these concentrations from 20 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L, 0.04 mg/L, 0.71 mg/L, and 1.72 mg/L over the same time period. In addition, the concentrations of these respective dyes were reduced by CLS-C from 20 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.30 mg/L, and 0.20 mg/L.

  • Researchpp 117-129Sydor, M., Rogoziński, T., Stuper-Szablewska, K., and Starczewski, K. (2020). "The accuracy of holes drilled in the side surface of plywood," BioRes. 15(1), 117-129. AbstractPDF

    Dimensional accuracy of machining translates into susceptibility to defects in assembly of furniture elements. In the initial drilling phase, the tip of the drill may slip due to the properties of the workpiece, which may result in inaccurate machining. Taking this into account, it was decided to investigate this phenomenon for drilling in the side of the plywood board. Samples for testing were made of 18 mm thick, 13 layer birch-alder plywood, covered with melamine film, glued with phenol-formaldehyde glue. With the use of an industrial dowel drilling machine, 30 holes in each of three examined layer were made. All holes were made parallel to the layers – on the side of the plywood board, and their axes were located in three adjacent layers: the birch veneer layer, the adhesive layer, and the alder veneer layer. Two types of geometric accuracy of holes were analyzed: the distance between the real center of the hole and the nominal position and also the inclination of the hole axis from the nominal axis. The holes made in the adhesive layer showed approximately twice larger deviations compared with the holes made in two adjacent layers of veneer. There was no significant relationship between the deviations of the angle of holes axis and the inaccuracies in the position of their centers. Main conclusion: When drilling in the side surface of the plywood board, less accurate holes are obtained if the hole axis is located in the adhesive layer, and there is more accuracy if the hole axis is located in the veneer layer.

  • Researchpp 130-141Huang, Y., Meng, S., Hwang, S.-W., Kobayashi, K., and Sugiyama, J. (2020). "Neural network for classification of Chinese zither panel wood via near-infrared spectroscopy," BioRes. 15(1), 130-141.AbstractPDF

    The wood grade used for Chinese zither panels is primarily determined through an artificial experience method, and the number of related practitioners is decreasing annually. In this study, a method using an improved BP neural network is proposed to assess the wood grade for Chinese zither panels. Abnormal spectral samples were first removed based on the Mahalanobis distance method. Normalization and Savitzky Golay second derivatization were applied to the remaining data set. According to the spectral peak, the spectral data were divided into three bands, which were applied to the model proposed in this paper, and the most critical spectral region for judging the wood grade of Chinese zither panels was obtained. Through principal component analysis, the appropriate feature variables were selected and applied to the experimental model for an analysis to reduce the calculated amount in the experiment. When the number of principal components was 6, the classification accuracy of unknown samples was 96.7%. Compared with the PLS model, the proposed model is more robust and accurate and has fewer losses. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method effectively identifies the wood grade used in Chinese zither panels.

  • Researchpp 142-158Wang, S., Wang, J., Okoye, P. U., Chen, S., Li, X., Duan, L., Zhou, H., Li, S., Tang, T., Zhang, L., and Zhang, A. (2020). "Application of corncob residue-derived catalyst in the transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate to synthesize glycerol carbonate," BioRes. 15(1), 142-158. AbstractPDF

    Corncob was calcined within a temperature range of 300 °C to 700 °C to prepare a series of corncob residue catalysts for the transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) to synthesize glycerol carbonate (GC). Among the catalysts, the corncob residue catalyst obtained through calcination of corncob at 500 °C (CCR-500) showed a relatively high basicity and satisfactory catalytic activity. The structural investigation results indicated that CCR-500 was composed of carbon material and some alkaline mineral salts. Using CCR-500 as the catalyst, a glycerol conversion of 98.1% and a GC yield of 94.1% were achieved when the reaction was performed at 80 °C for 90 min, with a catalyst amount of 3 wt% and glycerol to DMC molar ratio of 1:3. The comparison of CCR-500 with the reported catalysts indicated that the CCR-500 was a low-cost, high-active, and easily-accessible catalyst for the transesterification of glycerol with DMC.

  • Researchpp 159-171Yu, W., Xu, B., Fan, B., Zhang, Y., and Wang, X. (2020). "Effects of saturated steam treatment on the cell-wall mechanics and moisture sorption properties of kenaf fibers," BioRes. 15(1), 159-171.AbstractPDF

    To improve their hygroscopicity, kenaf fibers were thermally modified by saturated steam at 180 °C for 5, 10, 20, and 40 min. The chemical structure, cellulose crystallinity, cell-wall mechanics, and moisture sorption properties of kenaf fibers were analyzed to evaluate the modification effectiveness. Mass loss and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR) changes indicated that the lignin content and cellulose crystallinity (CrI) increased with the reduction in hemicellulose after a steam treatment, especially for a long duration. The increased CrI and relative lignin content resulted in an increased elastic modulus (Er) and hardness (H) of fiber cell walls after the steam treatment. The reduction in hydrophilic groups and increased stiffness of the cell wall after the steam treatment caused an obvious reduction in the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at the given relative humidity (RH). It also reduced the moisture increment/decrement and sorption hysteresis during the adsorption and desorption process.

  • Researchpp 172-186Nguyen, T. T. H., Tran, V. C., Li, S., and Li, J. (2020). "Effects of rosin-aluminum sulfate treatment on the leachability, color stability, and decay resistance of wood treated with a boron-based preservative," BioRes. 15(1), 172-186. AbstractPDF

    This study evaluated the combined effects of rosin and aluminum sulfate (alum) on the leachability of boron, the color stability, and the decay resistance of poplar (Populus ussuriensis) wood treated with boron compounds. After leaching, the boron content in the leachates was analyzed via the azomethine-H method. Results showed the amount of boron released from the rosin-alum-boron solution treated samples was reduced by approximately 30% when compared to the samples treated with boric acid alone. All samples treated with rosin-alum-boron formulations exhibited greater color stability than that of the untreated controls after being exposed to natural weathering. The decay resistance of the treated wood blocks was measured via a soil-block culture. The results revealed that after being treated with the rosin-alum-boron formulations, the decay resistance of the leached wood was markedly improved. The average weight loss of the samples degraded by both fungi tested was less than 20%. Notably, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the B element was still in the cell lumens of the leached and decayed wood blocks. This signified that the use of rosin combined with aluminum sulfate as a fixative agent may reduce boron leachability and could increase the usage of wood treated with boron preservatives.

  • Researchpp 187-198Han, S.-Y., Park, C.-W., Febrianto, F., Kim, N.-H., and Lee, S.-H. (2020). "Pretreatment with [EMIM]Ac/DMAc co-solvent to improve enzymatic saccharification of pussy willow (Salix gracilistyla Miq.)," BioRes. 15(1), 187-198. AbstractPDF

    Pretreatment of Salix gracilistyla Miq. with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac) together with N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a co-solvent achieved an improvement in enzymatic saccharification yield in comparison to the raw material without pretreatment. The effects of the [EMIM]Ac/DMAc ratio (7:3, 5:5, and 3:7), pretreatment temperature (80 to 140°C), and pretreatment time (1 to 3 h) on enzyme saccharification were investigated. Acremonium cellulase and Optimash BG were used as the enzyme cocktail. With addition of DMAc to [EMIM]Ac, the viscosity of the co-solvent was drastically decreased. With increasing pretreatment temperature and time, the water soluble fraction increased at all [EMIM]Ac/DMAc ratios. The cellulose crystallinity also increased with increasing amount of DMAc in the co-solvent but decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature. The yields of glucose and xylose increased with increasing [EMIM]Ac amounts in the co-solvent, varying from 72.8% to 84.3% and 75.3% to 88.1%, respectively, for all [EMIM]Ac/DMAc ratios. These values were markedly higher than the glucose and xylose yields of 25.7% and 8.4%, respectively, obtained with DMAc alone and comparable to the 86.7% and 83.9% yields, respectively, obtained with [EMIM]Ac alone. The highest glucose and xylose yields obtained under the investigated pretreatment conditions were 84.3% and 88.1%, respectively.

  • Researchpp 199-210Dumitrascu, A.-E., Lunguleasa, A., Salca, E.-A., and Ciobanu, V. D. (2020). "Evaluation of selected properties of oriented strand boards made from fast growing wood species," BioRes. 15(1), 199-210. AbstractPDF

    Three fast-growing wood species in Romania, namely birch, willow, and poplar, were considered in this work. These species may have potential to replace softwoods or mixtures of wood species frequently used in the production of oriented strand boards (OSB). This study evaluated some physico-mechanical properties of these wood species that influence the performance of OSB boards made using 100% of strands from each individual species. Wood strands were cut, dried, screened, and sorted in order to form the core and surface layers of OSB boards. They were blended with a polymeric diphenyl methane diisocyanate adhesive (pMDI) and compressed with the help of a hydraulic press. The mechanical tests were performed under standard laboratory conditions. The obtained OSB boards made of each of the wood species met the EN standard of minimum requirements for OSB/2 properties, except the MOE of poplar-OSB, while its MOR was higher than that obtained for OSB made of birch even for small differences in board density. The birch-OSB presented superior elastic properties. Results of this experimental work can have industrial applications for an efficient use of low-grade raw material.

  • Researchpp 211-227Wang, Z., Zhao, Z., Qian, J., He, Z., and Yi, S. (2020). "Effects of extractives on degradation characteristics and VOCs released during wood heat treatment," BioRes. 15(1), 211-227. AbstractPDF

    Eucalyptus was applied to investigate the influence of extractives on thermo-degradation of wood during heat treatment. Degradation characteristics, specifically the thermal degradation kinetics and volatile products during the heat treatment, were studied. A kinetic analysis was performed based on the Arrhenius equation and the time-temperature superposition principle. A devolatilization analysis was then conducted according to the chromatography identification. The results showed that the extractives facilitated the thermo-degradation and initiated the degradation at a lower temperature. An earlier degradation starting point was detected, and a lower activation energy of 65.7 kJ/mol was calculated for the non-extracted Eucalyptus. The VOCs collected in this research were primarily acetates, furans, terpenes, and other compounds. The non-extracted specimen released more VOCs than the extracted specimen. Compared with extracted samples, further hemicellulose degradation was identified for the non-extracted samples at the whole stage of 180 °C and a temperature-elevating period of 200 °C, as well as lignin decomposition at the temperature-holding section of 220 °C. However, only hemicellulose degradation was observed in extracted samples. This research could be helpful for the mechanism explanation of wood heat treatments and to promote the process to be more efficient and environmentally friendly.

  • Researchpp 228-239Wang, F. (2020). "Determination of lignin concentration in bleaching effluent via Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 method," BioRes. 15(1), 228-239. AbstractPDF

    Kraft pulp and alkali peroxide mechanical pulp were prepared with aspen and wheat straw and bleached with chlorine dioxide, an alkali extraction strengthened by hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, or peroxyacetic acid. Eight different bleaching effluents were obtained, and a Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 method was applied to determine the lignin content in each of the bleaching effluents. The visible light spectra indicated that the alkali-soluble lignin and the alkali bleaching effluent could increase the absorbance of Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 at 640 nm, but the acidic soluble lignin and the acidic bleaching effluent did not increase absorbance. Thus, the Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 method applied to alkali bleaching effluents but did not apply to acidic bleaching effluents. An analysis of the pH, particle size, zeta potential, and visible light spectra determination showed the Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 absorbed on lignin particles, which caused the absorbance increase at 640 nm. With the actual measured value of the lignin content obtained via the Klason lignin method, the relative error of the results obtained via the Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 method was less than or equal to 3.8%.