NC State
  • Editorialpp 1-2Hubbe, M. A. (2020). "Saving the planet: What is the role of biomass?" BioRes. 15(1), 1-2. AbstractPDF

    Scientists predict continuing increases in average global temperatures. Consequences include sea level rise, shifts in agriculture, and severe stress on many species, including our own. Can biomass be used to mitigate climate change? It is proposed in this essay that the answer is “yes, but”. Yes, trees and other plants will continue to serve as “the lungs of the planet,” converting CO2 to O2 by photosynthesis. But saving the world will not be easy. Biomass scientists will not be able to solve the problems alone. Rather, mitigation of problems related to climate change will require parallel efforts. We will need to get energy also from the sun, from wind, from water, from improvements in efficiency, and from societies learning to live peaceably, while showing restraint regarding jet travel.

  • Editorialpp 3-5Ma, Q., Lu, X., and Chen, Z. (2020). "Could aerogels from lignin-containing forest materials be used for cushioning in packaging systems?" BioRes. 15(1), 3-5.AbstractPDF

    Cushioning materials are commonly used in packaging systems for storage and transport to provide support and to minimize damage from impact forces generated during sudden contact. For instance, they play an essential role in reducing losses from the orchard to the consumer. A 2009 article by Chen et al. reported on three alkali-based softening treatments to reduce the content of lignin and hemicellulose of cylindrical luffa to present a cushioning mattress. Notably, better comprehensive strength and recovery ability were obtained when the porous sample contained a moderate amount of lignin and hemicellulose. As a promising porous material, aerogels have favorable properties such as high surface area, low density, light weight, and high porosity with a three dimensional (3D) network, which have attracted much attention. In the process to prepare such an “aerogel from natural forest” (AFNF) materials, researchers typically have removed most of the lignin and hemicellulose to obtain ultralight AFNF with a high crystallinity index. So, taking inspiration from the cylindrical luffa study, it is proposed here that AFNF be used as cushioning material for packaging, and that the optimum lignin content might be much higher than previously envisioned.

  • Researchpp 6-19Park, S., Wistara, N., Febrianto, F., and Lee, M. (2020). "Evaluation of sembilang bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) charcoal for potential utilization," BioRes. 15(1), 6-19. AbstractPDF

    Potential application of Sembilang bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) as a fuel source or an adsorbent was investigated, due to its large diameter, fast growth speed, and growth type. Samples of D. giganteus were carbonized at various temperatures, and then their physicochemical, fuel, and adsorption properties were analyzed and compared to the properties of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), which is widely used as a raw material for charcoal in Northeast Asia. The volume, weight, and density of the D. giganteus samples were greatly reduced between carbonization temperatures of 200 °C and 400 °C. It is possible that the high levels of SiO2 and K in D. giganteus may cause a high electric conductivity value in Dendrocalamus giganteus charcoal, which is a poor fuel source because of its high ash content and low calorific value. The acidity of D. giganteus disappeared at a carbonization temperature of 400 °C and the pH of D. giganteus increased up to 10.3. The adsorption power of D. giganteus, in terms of iodine and methylene blue, was higher than that of P. edulis. Based on the results of this experiment, the proper utilization of Sembilang bamboo charcoal was suggested as a chemical adsorbent.

  • Researchpp 20-27Tascioglu, C., Umemura, K., Kusumah, S., Kose, C., Yalcin, M., Akcay, C., and Yoshimura, T. (2020). "Mold and larvae resistance of wood-based composites incorporating sodium fluoride," BioRes. 15(1), 20-27. AbstractPDF

    The efficacy of particleboards manufactured with sodium fluoride against mold fungi and Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) larvae was tested. Laboratory-size particleboards were manufactured from untreated wood particles with inclusion of fine sodium fluoride (NaF) at the 1, 1.5, and 3% levels relative to total particle weight. Sodium fluoride was introduced as powder during the manufacturing process just before blending resin with wood particles. The laboratory mold test indicated that even the lowest level of retention of NaF with or without leaching significantly reduced mold growth on particleboard surfaces when compared to the untreated control specimens. The increased retention of NaF from 1% to 3% further suppressed mold growth towards lowest levels even on leached specimens. The laboratory Hylotrupes bajulus larvae tests revealed that the particleboard environment with or without NaF is not appropriate for larvacidial activity. While the tested biocide, NaF, tested positive against mold growth on particleboard surfaces, no effect was determined relative to larval deaths.

  • Researchpp 28-37Andac Guzel, T. (2020). "Consumer attitudes toward preference and use of wood, woodenware, and furniture: A sample from Kayseri, Turkey," BioRes. 15(1), 28-37.AbstractPDF

    Wood, as a natural and sustainable source, has many fields of utilization. It is crucial for people to use wood in housing in ways that reflect their preferences and attitudes. The focus of this study is to measure consumers’ thoughts, knowledge, and awareness of wood materials. A survey was conducted about how consumers’ knowledge and conscious attitudes are reflected in their purchase and use of various wooden domestic items, including wood furniture and woodenware. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that individuals believe that wood is a natural and organic (45.6%) material that people enjoy and become happy (43.7%) when using it. ‘Furniture’ (82.5%) is the most frequent way of utilizing wood for individuals at home. However, these people tend to use wood composite furniture, which offers more functionality and design options (71.8%), as natural wood is an expensive material (57.8%).

  • Researchpp 38-48Kučerová, V., Výbohová, E., Hönig, V., and Čabalová, I. (2020). "Chemical changes within solids during liquid hot water pretreatment of wood," BioRes. 15(1), 38-48.AbstractPDF

    The chemical properties of willow were studied following liquid hot water pretreatment. Three different temperatures of liquid hot water pretreatment were used (160, 180, and 200 °C) for periods of 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The contents of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, glucose, and xylose was determined. Compared with the original sample, the results indicated that lignin and extractives content increased after pretreatment. Further, the content of xylose decreased significantly with increasing pretreatment time for all three temperatures. The highest glucose content was obtained under the conditions of 180 °C for 240 min. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the content of xylose in the solid fraction and the severity factor of treatment. To determine the changes in cellulose crystallinity, the total crystallinity index (TCI) and the lateral order index (LOI) were calculated from the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of cellulose. An increase in both of these structural characteristics was observed at all experimental temperatures.

  • Researchpp 49-61Lu, L., Li, Y., Liang, Y., Chen, Q., and Lu, Q. (2020). "One-pot green synthesis of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals through oxidative degradation of bamboo pulp," BioRes. 15(1), 49-61.AbstractPDF

    Carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCN) were prepared from bamboo pulp by ammonium persulfate (APS) with an ultrasonication-assisted technique. The effects of ultrasonication time, APS concentration, and reaction temperature on the yield of CCN were investigated. The morphology, structure, crystallinity, and thermal properties of prepared samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The CCN presented rod-like shapes with diameter ranging from 10 to 30 nm and length of 50 to 200 nm. FTIR showed that CCN still kept with the basic chemical structure of cellulose, and at the 1735 cm-1 appearing the peak of C=O. The XRD pattern indicated that CCN was characteristic of the cellulose I crystal form, and the crystallinity of CCN was 63%. TGA revealed that CCN had a lower thermal stability than bamboo pulp. This research explored a low-cost and eco-friendly way to prepare CCN.

  • Researchpp 62-77Ma, Z., Zhong, P., Li, J., and Yin, Y. (2020). "Soft sensor model of adsorbable organic halogen based on bleached pulp quality indices," BioRes. 15(1), 62-77. AbstractPDF

    Adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) produced during the bleaching process contains polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. To predict AOX in a timely and economical manner during pulp bleaching, a soft sensor model based on pulp quality indices was developed by analyzing the correlation between the AOX in the bleaching effluent and the whiteness, Kappa number, and intrinsic viscosity of the pulp. Variations of the main components during pulp bleaching were considered to determine their effects on wastewater AOX content. The results showed that the models can predict the AOX content of bleaching wastewater precisely and rapidly. The high relevant between pulp components and whiteness, Kappa number, and intrinsic viscosity allows the soft sensor model to predict AOX value without interference of components. The developed model has practical importance for monitoring AOX emissions and controlling pollution, which is essential for the global optimization of bleached pulp production cost, pulp quality, and environmental impact. Additionally, it adapts to the requirement of intelligent control of the bleaching process.

  • Researchpp 78-88Li, S., Zhao, X., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., and Liu, Y. (2020). "Fluorescent N-doped carbon dots from bacterial cellulose for highly sensitive bacterial detection," BioRes. 15(1), 78-88.AbstractPDF

    Carbon dots have good dispersion capability, strong visible fluorescence, low toxicity, and photo-induced accepting and donating abilities. Carbon dots were obtained from biomass bacterial cellulose (BC) via one-step hydrothermal carbonization. Effects of hydrothermal time and temperature on the microstructure, fluorescence, and excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence (PL) behavior were explored for the prepared carbon dots. The results showed that the carbon dots obtained directly from the BC (C dots) had small particle sizes (2.0 to 3.0 nm) and green luminescence behavior. Conversely, the N-doped carbon dots (N-C dots) exhibited more uniform and smaller particle sizes (approximately 1.0 nm), strong blue luminescence, acceptable fluorescence lifetime, and good stability in a wide range of pH values (2.0 to 10.0). Thus, carbon dots could serve as a fluorescent material used in high performance optical cellular imaging and highly sensitive bacterial detection.

  • Researchpp 89-104An, L., Si, C., Wang, G., Choi, C. S., Yu, Y. H., Bae, J. H., Lee, S. M., and Kim, Y. S. (2020). "Efficient and green approach for the esterification of lignin with oleic acid using surfactant-combined microreactors in water," BioRes. 15(1), 89-104. AbstractPDF

    A green, effective, and feasible reaction for esterification of lignin with oleic acid in water at room temperature was investigated. A surfactant-combined system (p-toluenesulfonic acid/4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid) was designed to simultaneously solubilize kraft lignin and disperse the oleic acid, producing microreactors for esterification. Esterification using a higher 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid dosage at room temperature was found to be a good option, and an increasing oleic acid dosage had no effect on improving the degree of esterification. Structural characterization analyses confirmed the successful esterification of lignin with oleic acid, indicating the effectiveness and feasibility of esterification of macromolecules in water. Due to the introduction of a long flexible aliphatic chain, the lignin ester showed a noticeable decrease in glass transition temperature, an obvious increase in contact angle, and exhibited excellent thermoplasticity, processability, and hydrophobicity. Additionally, lignin-ester nanoparticles were prepared through the micellization of p-toluenesulfonic acid. Therefore, the method of esterification using surfactant-combined microreactors in water is promising for high value-added utilization of lignin.