NC State
  • Researchpp 6847-6859Fu, Q., Zhuang, B., Wang, X.-M., Cloutier, A., Roussière, F., and Bouffard, J.-F. (2022). "Thermo-hydrolytic recycling of urea-formaldehyde resin-bonded laminated particleboards," BioResources 17(4), 6847-6859.AbstractArticlePDF

    The large global production of particleboards creates an equal quantity of particleboard waste after completion of their service life. Given increasing demand for green products and government environmental policies, it is urgent to develop technologies to recycle these used composite panels into valuable raw materials. This study was conducted to recover particles from waste laminated particleboards using various thermo-hydrolytic treatments. The recovered particles were used as raw materials with different substitutions of fresh particles to manufacture particleboard panels. The performance of the resulting particleboards was evaluated in terms of their mechanical properties and formaldehyde emissions. The nitrogen content of the control and resulting particles were measured to determine the resin removal in recycled particles. The results suggested that different thermo-hydrolytic treatments did not have significant influence on particles size distribution. Approximately 65% of urea-formaldehyde resin was removed from the particleboards treated at 140 °C/20 min. Particles recycled at 140 °C/20 min were comparable to fresh particles in terms of mechanical properties and formaldehyde emissions, and 100% of the recycled particles were used in the manufacture of particleboard without an adverse impact on the board performance.

  • Researchpp 6860-6874Yang, M. S., Han, Y., and Son, D. W. (2022). "Effect of using laser incising treatment and fire-retardant coating on Larix kaempferi wood to improve fire retardant performance," BioResources, 17(4), 6860-6874.AbstractArticlePDF

    To improve fire-retardant performance of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) wood, this study analyzed the effect of pinholes made by laser incising and fire retardant (FR) coating on the surface of Japanese larch wood. Combustion properties such as peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of Japanese larch and Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) wood without FRs showed similar tendencies. The comparison of the combustion properties on wood injected with an inorganic water-soluble FR under vacuum revealed that the PHRR and the THR of Korean red pine wood decreased by 37 and 62%, respectively. FR was injected into the Japanese larch specimens with pinholes on the surface and additionally coated with 5% sodium silicate and 35% potassium bromide. The results indicated a 16 to 25 and 19% reduction in PHRR and THR, respectively, compared to those without the FR. Despite the pinholes and FR coating, the FR employed in this study did not meet the standards set in Korea (THR of 8 MJ/m2). This study serves as a reference for future studies on the application of pressurized conditions and other surface treatments to improve the FR percent injection and performance of Japanese larch wood.

  • Researchpp 6875-6899Jirarotepinyo, N., and Venditti, R. A. (2022). "A statistically designed evaluation of nanocellulose, refining and cationic starch on the properties of linerboard from recycled old corrugated containers (OCC)," BioResources 17(4), 6875-6899.AbstractArticlePDF

    Methods to improve the physical properties of recycled paper can greatly enhance its potential applications, especially for packaging. This study aimed to understand the effect of refining, cationic starch addition, and cellulosic nanofibers (CNF) generated from old corrugated containers (OCC) addition with recycled OCC on tensile index (TI) and ring crush index (RCI). Linerboard from OCC made on an industrial paper machine was compared with the lab prepared handsheets, and the results indicated that the lab procedure including the refining step produced board reflective of the industrially made linerboard. CNF addition was observed to decrease the drainage rate of the unrefined OCC pulp stock but not significantly when the OCC pulp stock was refined to a freeness of 300 mL CSF. The results of a statistically designed experiment showed that cationic starch, refining, and the interaction between cationic starch and CNF were significant parameters that improve TI. Through experiments that measured the retention of the pulp stock, it was determined that CNF retention was only 44.8% without cationic starch and increased to 90.0% with cationic starch present, thus explaining their interaction. This study indicates that CNF from OCC can be combined with cationic starch at appropriate levels to improve properties of the resulting board without critically decreasing the drainage rate.

  • Researchpp 6900-6909Hasegawa, M., Okamura, H., and Hano, Y. (2022). "Nondestructive prediction of fire performance in fire retardant-treated wood using x-ray computed tomography," BioResources 17(4), 6900-6909.AbstractArticlePDF

    The fire performance of fire retardant-treated wood can be evaluated based on how much of the chemical retardant is used. Therefore, methods for identifying chemical content in wood are needed. Stereo images of wood samples before and after the fire retardant treatment were captured using micro-focus X-ray computed tomography. Image brightness values, indicating concentration, were calculated using binarized images sliced from the X-ray images. Changes in integrated brightness values before and after treatment showed a strong positive correlation with chemical content at a 1% significance level. The chemical content of the retardant-treated wood was predicted based on the relationship between the two. The predicted values were in agreement with the values measured using the leaching method. Fire performance tests of the fire retardant-treated wood were conducted using a cone calorimeter. The treated wood was classified as fire-retardant and non-combustible wood. In addition, the fire performance predicted by the relationship between changes in integrated brightness values and chemical content agreed with the classification by the fire performance test. These findings suggest that X-ray computed tomography can be potentially used to predict the chemical content of fire retardant-treated wood.

  • Researchpp 6910-6925Zhang, R., He, Y., Dauletbek, A., Shen, Z., Zhou, Y., and Wang, Z. (2022). "Design and manufacture of laminated veneer lumber packaging boxes and pallets and evaluation of their mechanical properties," BioResources 17(4), 6910-6925.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wooden packaging boxes and pallets are used in a wide range of applications. In this work, LVL from the same source and batch were used as the base material. After dynamic detection and grading, they were divided into two grades (A and B), according to their differences in elastic modulus. The packaging boxes and pallets of the same specifications were designed and manufactured as the research objects. Four mechanical properties studies and related analyses were performed. The three mechanical tests showed different deflection values of the two packaging boxes A and B, and the maximum error was 6.93%. In the rotational edge drop test, the edges of the nether end rails of the two grades of LVL boxes were damaged to varying degrees. Additionally, the nails at the connection between the middle longitudinal beam and the bottom plate also appeared to be pulled out, and the parts made of B-grade LVL were more obvious. The results show that the dynamic detection and quality grading for LVL can effectively distinguish the material grade. The grading results were consistent with the mechanical properties of the LVL packaging boxes and pallets of corresponding grades, which are suitable for use in production lines.

  • Researchpp 6926-6940Markova, I., Mitrenga, P., Makovická Osvaldová, L., and Hybská, H. (2022). "Determination of the ignition temperature of hay for the purposes of fire risk assessment on farms - Slovak case study," BioResources 17(4), 6926-6940.AbstractArticlePDF

    Hot surfaces are an integral part of the technological processes of agricultural crop processing. Their surface temperature at critical points can exceed the minimum ignition temperature. This paper aims to experimentally observe the behaviour of hay when exposed to radiant heat. The model presented here is implemented using a hot plate device. The hot plate has a defined temperature-time curve. Based on the above, the hot plate temperature is determined as the minimum ignition temperature of the investigated hay specimen. At the same time, the temperature inside the tested material was monitored. The heterogeneity of the above specimens significantly influenced the nature of the biomass thermal degradation. The ignition temperature of the hay (406 °C) can serve as a tool for fire risk assessment.

  • Researchpp 6941-6952Huang, S., Xing, J., Zhou, G., and Xia, X. (2022). "A simple and rapid method for the diameter detection of cellulose nanocrystals via sedimentation method," BioResources 17(4), 6941-6952.AbstractArticlePDF


    The diameter of nanocellulose most often is detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other related techniques. These detection methods are not only expensive, time-consuming, and complicated to operate, but also are not conducive to the detection of the diameter during the actual production of nanocellulose. In this study, the settling height of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was related to CNC diameter by sedimentation method to find a convenient technique for the rapid detection of CNC diameter. The results showed that when the CNC concentration was at 0.2 wt%, the sodium chloride (NaCl) dosage at 40 g/L, and at the standing time of 48 h, the CNC sedimentation performance was the best. Furthermore, with the increase of CNC diameter, the settling height of CNCs gradually decreased. The relationship between CNC diameter and settling height was Y (Settling height) = -30.17 ln(X (CNC diameter)) + 123.64; and the coefficient of determination for the fit was 0.9965. This research provides a new method for the diameter detection of CNCs in the actual CNCs production in enterprises.

  • Researchpp 6953-6969Schut, E. G. (2022). "Environmental degradation of cellulose under anaerobic conditions," BioResources 17(4), 6953-6969.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cellulose is a primary structural component of plants and is one of the most abundant polymers on the Earth. Degradation of this recalcitrant component of plant biomass is an important process in the global carbon cycle and can potentially provide feedstock for biofuels. Fungi and bacteria are the primary organisms able to breakdown biomass-derived cellulose. Anaerobic bacteria, present in cellulose degrading ecosystems, such as compost piles, soils rich in organic matter, aquatic sediments, and digestive systems of herbivores, have developed efficient pathways to maximize metabolic energy from biomass degradation. In the absence of terminal electron acceptors, such as oxygen, hydrogen-producing pathways are common methods of electron carrier recycling. Electron bifurcating systems linked to hydrogen metabolism play an important role in anaerobic metabolism. In this study, samples from environmental cellulose-degrading microbial communities were collected, and the metabolic products produced during anaerobic cellulose degradation were examined. Samples from different environments produced different fermentation products from cellulose, suggesting flexibility in the fermentative degradation pathways. The most abundant products observed included hydrogen, acetate, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, and methane.

  • Researchpp 6970-6982Korpela, A., Jaiswal, A., Tanaka, A., and Asikainen, J. (2022). "Piloting wet tensile strength development of polyamide-amine-epichlorohydrin wet strengthened nordic bleached softwood pulp paper by alkyl ketene dimer internal sizing," BioResources 17(4), 6970-6982.AbstractArticlePDF

    The results of recent laboratory-scale studies regarding the joint effects of wet strengthening agent polyamide-amine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) and internal alkylketene dimer (AKD) sizing on Nordic bleached softwood pulp (NBSK) handsheets indicate that AKD internal sizing increases the wet strength of PAE wet strengthened handsheets. The boosting effect of the internal AKD sizing was long-lasting. At the molecular level the actual mechanism behind the effect is unclear. The present study examines if the enhanced effect of internal AKD sizing, which is potentially exploitable in practice, also occurs in paper made by VTT’s Suora pilot paper machine. The trials were done using a similar type of NBSK pulp and the same chemicals as in the laboratory-scale studies. The paper was formed at 400 m/min using a hybrid dewatering mode (Fourdrinier + gap). Just as in the laboratory-scale studies, the internal AKD sizing of PAE wet-strengthened NBSK paper resulted in a long-lasting increase of the paper wet strength. In accordance with the laboratory trials, internal AKD sizing had no noticeable effect on the dry tensile strength of the pilot-made paper. The only apparent difference to the earlier observations was an increase of dry tensile strength of the paper treated solely with PAE.

  • Researchpp 6983-6996Aytin, A., Uygur, İ., Demirci, T., and Akgül, İ. (2022). "The effect of cryogenic treatment on some chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of Thermowood® Oriental spruce," BioResources 17(4), 6983-6996.AbstractArticlePDF

    Effects of cryogenic treatment on the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of oriental spruce wood, which was heat-treated with the Thermowood® method, were investigated in this work. Cryogenic treatment, which is a secondary process applied to industrially heat-treated ferrous and non-ferrous metallic materials, was applied to Thermowood® Oriental spruce wood. For this purpose, Oriental spruce wood was first heat-treated at two different temperatures (190 and 212 °C), and then both Thermowood® and control samples were cryogenically treated at -80 °C. The effects on shrinkage and swelling pressure resistance parallel to fibers, and the elemental structure were examined. The findings revealed that the improvement in shrinkage and swelling continued with heat treatment, and there was an average increase of 18 and 14.5%, respectively, in the compressive strength parallel to fibers compared with control and heat-treated samples. The FT-IR analysis showed that the wood compound structure was mostly cellulosic. The difference between the carbon-oxygen ratio in the cryogenically-treated wood decreased compared to the percentage change in the three basic elements, and the amount of hydrogen increased proportionally.


54 years ago

Read More