NC State
  • Researchpp 701-719Zhan, Y., Huang, W., Si, R., Xiang, T., and Hao, L. (2023). "Shear behavior of notched connection for glubam-geopolymer concrete composite structures: Experimental investigation," BioResources 18(1), 701-719.AbstractArticlePDF

    The glubam (glue-laminated bamboo)-geopolymer concrete composite (BGCC) structure is a possible way to achieve sustainable construction due to its combination of renewable resources and industrial waste. This study combined glubam and geopolymer concrete in composite structures and investigated the shear behavior of BGCC structures with notched connections. Four groups of push-out tests were designed to evaluate the influence of the number of notches and screws on the slip modulus and shear capacity. The results showed that the composite structures with notched connections failed first due to shear cracking at the interface notch. The double-notch specimens increased the shear capacity by 54% compared to single-notch specimens. The shearing bearing capacity rose by 35% on average as a screw increased in a single notch. The ductility and slip modulus were influenced primarily by the screws, with each extra screw in a single notch increasing the slip modulus by 21% in each stage. Based on the test results, a modified formula was proposed to predict the shear-bearing capacity of notched connections in BGCC structures. This study provides comparison data for further studies in the long-term behavior of BGCC structures.

  • Researchpp 720-732Khafhafera, A., and DeMartini, N. (2023). "Solubility of sodium oxalate in kraft black liquors above 100 °C," BioResources 18(1), 720-732.AbstractArticlePDF

    The solubility of sodium oxalate was measured in kraft black liquors at temperatures of 115 °C to 140 °C with dry solid contents of 45% to 70%. The composition of black liquors studied were varied with respect to sodium concentration by addition of sodium salts. The solubility of sodium oxalate increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing liquor dry solid contents. The solubility data showed no dependence on the liquor composition at a constant concentration of sodium. A mathematical expression was derived and validated from the experimental data at the conditions investigated to predict the solubility of sodium oxalate as a function of temperature and sodium concentration. An application to assess the solubility and precipitation risk of sodium oxalate is demonstrated in seven evaporator bodies using the newly derived models.

  • Researchpp 733-747Zhang, Y., Xu, Y., Pei, Y., and Yin, X. (2023). "Green liquor desilication via black liquor combustion process for bamboo pulping," BioResources 18(1), 733-747.AbstractArticlePDF

    The presence of silicon in non-wood raw materials is known to interfere with the causticization of green liquor and the calcination of white mud, which has provided motivation for advances in alkali recovery technology. Therefore, reducing the silicon content of green liquor is the fundamental way to solve the problem. However, there are certain defects in conventional green liquor desilication, so this study provides a basis for desilication from green liquor via black liquor combustion and studies the desilication effect of a compound desilication agent on bamboo pulping black liquor. The results show that the desilication effect was better and the desilication rate could reach 84% when the Mg/Al proportion in compound desilication agent was 1:0.6. Meanwhile, the content of residual aluminum in green liquor decreased, which can avoid the influence of residual desilication agent on subsequent stages. Scanning electron microscopic images show that green-liquor-silicon-insoluble (GLSI) substance is a granular precipitate, and the X-ray diffraction analysis shows that GLSI substance has a complex structure similar to 3Al2O3•2SiO2•MgO. This implies that the desilication mechanism consists of chemical precipitation and physical adsorption.

  • Researchpp 748-766Xu, F., and Cho, B.-U. (2023). "Preparation and optimization of porous regenerated cellulose microspheres from cellulose tetraethyl-ammonium/urea solution for adsorption of cationic methylene blue dye," BioResources 18(1), 748-766.AbstractArticlePDF

    Porous regenerated cellulose microspheres (RCMs) have attracted increasing attention due to their wide range of applications from medical carriers to environmental remediation. Here, porous RCMs were synthesized for adsorption of cationic methylene blue dye using a simple emulsification–acid coagulation–oven-drying technique after dissolving pulp cellulose with a degree of polymerization (DP) of approximately 1500 in tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH)/urea solvents at room temperature. The RCMs with controllable size (20 to 224 µm) and high pore volume (8.24 to 10.20 mL/g) were prepared by varying the dosage of the surfactant polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80). Moreover, the viscosity of the cellulose solution steadily decreased with storage time due to the decrease in cellulose DP, but the effect on the particle size and morphology of RCMs was negligible, which could be advantageous to the scalable production of RCMs. When used as an adsorbent for cationic methylene blue dye removal, it showed high adsorption efficiency (1 h to achieve equilibrium, 24.5 mg/g), stability, recyclability, and reusability.

  • Researchpp 767-777Özlüsoylu, İ., and İstek, A. (2023). "Effects of surface lamination process parameters on medium density fiberboard (MDF) properties," BioResources 18(1), 767-777.AbstractArticlePDF

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) is widely utilized in furniture production. Most MDF in such applications has a surface laminate layer. The lamination process improves the physical and mechanical properties of the boards. The temperature, press time, and pressure values applied during the lamination process affect such properties. In this work, the lamination process was carried out using a constant temperature (180 °C), four different press times (18, 20, 22, and 24 s), and three different pressures (25, 30, and 35 kg/cm2). The raw weight of the decor paper was 90 g/m2 and UF and MF glues were used in its production. The properties of the laminated panels were then determined for each variation. In general, the water absorption and thickness swelling properties were improved at the lower pressure and higher press times. The internal bonding strength exhibited a linear change at different press times depending on increasing pressure values, whereas the changes in the bending strength and modulus of elasticity in bending were not statistically significant. It was concluded that the BS increased with rising pressure in the short-term lamination process and that the effect of the pressure on the BS declined with increasing press time.

  • Researchpp 778-791Lin, P., Ko, C., Chang, F., Tu, S., and Lin, C. (2023). "Oxidation behavior and decomposition kinetics of mixed-waste biomass material," BioResources 18(1), 778-791.AbstractArticlePDF

    In Taiwan, approximately 379,000 automobiles and 588,000 motorcycles were recycled in 2019. Rigid polyurethane foam is one of the principal components of auto shredder residue. The amount of rigid polyurethane foam from the recycling of waste vehicles is 8,000 to 10,000 tons/year. In this study, waste Cryptomeria wood was mixed with waste rigid polyurethane foam to form derived fuels. The oxidation behaviors of the wood mixed with waste rigid polyurethane foam-derived fuels were investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from wood mixed with waste rigid polyurethane foam showed that the ash content was less than 2.5% and its calorific value reached 21.9 MJ/kg. According to the Friedman equation, the activation energies of the wood mixed with 5%, 15%, and 30% of waste rigid polyurethane foam pellets were 212, 220, and 188 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermal conversion efficiencies of the wood mixed with 5%, 15%, and 30% of waste rigid polyurethane foam pellets were 30.2% to 48.1% by a water boiling test. The results showed that waste Cryptomeria mixed with waste rigid polyurethane foam-derived fuels is suitable for use as an alternative renewable energy fuel.

  • Researchpp 792-803Kuzmina, N., Menshchikov, S., Mohnachev, P., Zavyalov, K., Petrova, I., Ozel, H. B., Aricak, B., Onat, S. M., and Sevik, H. (2023). "Change of aluminum concentrations in specific plants by species, organ, washing, and traffic density," BioResources 18(1), 792-803.AbstractArticlePDF

    One of the most critical problems throughout the world is air pollution, causing the death of millions of individuals annually, and it is reported that 90% of the global population breathes polluted air. Among the components of air pollution, the most harmful ones are the heavy metals, which can remain non-degraded in nature for a long time, bio-accumulate in living organisms, and be toxic or carcinogenic at low concentrations. Hence, monitoring and reducing heavy metal pollution in the air are high-priority research topics. Heavy metals can accumulate within various organs of plants grown in an environment with an increased level of heavy metal pollution. The metal analyses on these organs can provide insight into the heavy metal pollution in the air. In the present study, the concentrations of aluminum (Al), one of the most important heavy metals, were determined in the different organs of five plant species grown in regions with different traffic densities. Remarkable changes were observed in the Al concentrations in all the organs of species, which were examined here by organ and traffic density. The highest values were obtained from the organs of plants grown in no-traffic regions.

  • Researchpp 804-826Yorur, H., Ozcanan, S., Yumrutas, H. I., and Birinci, E. (2023). "Renewable hybrid roadside barrier: Optimization of timber thickness," BioResources 18(1), 804-826.AbstractArticlePDF

    Researchers have recently focused on new and original roadside barriers that prioritize aesthetic, and environmental concerns by employing natural materials. In this study, the safety performance (Acceleration Severity Index (ASI), Theorical Head Impact Velocity (THIV)), structural performance (Working Width (W), Exit Angle (α)), and failure analysis (visual deformation) of a newly developed Renewable Hybrid Barrier (RHB) system at different timber thicknesses were tried to be determined by pendulum crash test and Finite Element (FE) models. The FE models were calibrated and validated based on pendulum crash test results, and then the most suitable timber thickness in terms of safety and structural performance was determined via FE analyses. The results revealed that as the timber thickness decreased, the safety parameters, such as ASI and THIV, decreased, thus the barrier safety increased. However, it was observed that the deflection and deformations in the barrier increased as the timber thickness decreased. In this sense, the safest and the most structurally durable barrier was determined through conducting virtual optimization tests. Studies on diversification of the usage areas of natural/renewable materials should be increased in the future.

  • Reviewpp ###-###Hadley, T., Hickey, K., Lix, K., Sharma, S., Berretta, T., and Navessin, T. (2023). "Flushed but not forgotten: The rising costs and opportunities of disposable wet wipes," BioResources 18(1), Page numbers to be added.AbstractArticlePDF

    The increasing popularity of single-use wet wipes across a variety of applications has caused environmental and economic challenges. Due to their convenience and low cost, disposable nonwoven wipes have become a necessity in the lives of many. However, consumers rarely consider the end-of-life of these items. Despite efforts from stakeholders, including wipes manufacturers and wastewater experts, there is frequent confusion among consumers regarding appropriate disposal. Many consumers flush wipes that are not compatible with municipal sewer systems, causing considerable damage. Additionally, wipes have poor environmental outcomes, as they often contain non-renewable plastics or are unable to biodegrade under disposal conditions. Previously, the wet wipes industry was projected to grow an average of 6% between 2021 and 2025; however, the use of these disposable items is projected to be much higher due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper reviews the market, key challenges, and technical properties of single-use nonwoven wipes. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties and associated challenges of flushable wipes. With strong market demands, consumers are unlikely to abandon single-use wipes, and therefore innovative solutions are required to solve the main environmental and technical challenges associated with flushable and non-flushable wipes.

  • Reviewpp ###-###Chen, Y., Sun, C., Ren, Z., and Na, B. (2023). "Review of the current state of application of wood defect recognition technology," BioResources 18(1), Page numbers to be added.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wood utilisation is an important factor affecting production costs, but the combined utilisation rate of wood is generally only 50 to 70%. During the production process, the rejection scheme of wood defects is one of the most important factors affecting the wood yield. This paper provides an overview of the main wood defects affecting wood quality, introduces techniques for detecting and identifying wood defects using different technologies, highlights the more widely used image recognition-based wood surface defect identification methods, and presents three advanced wood defect detection and identification equipment. In view of the relatively fixed wood defect recognition requirements in wood processing production, it is proposed that wood defect recognition technology should be further developed toward deep learning to improve the accuracy and efficiency of wood defect recognition.