NC State
  • Researchpp 3010-3030Aydemir, D., Aksu, O., Bardak, T., Yaman, B., Sözen, E., Ümit Yalçın, Ö., Gündüz, G., and Koçan, N. (2024). “Mechanical characterization and strain analysis applied to the heat treatment of wood materials, by means of digital image correlation,” BioResources 19(2), 3010-3030.AbstractArticlePDF

    Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to examine the strain distribution of heat-treated beech and Uludag fir woods in mechanical testing. It also evaluated the effects of the heat treatment process on the properties of the wood samples. The physical (mass/density loss, dimensional stability, color change, and surface roughness), mechanical (flexure test and compressive strength), morphological, thermal, and structural properties of the heat-treated wood were examined. It was determined that the heat treatment parameters can be optimized using the DIC method. The test results showed that although heat treatment can provide improved physical and thermal properties, it caused micro-crack formations and collapses in the wood cells. As a consequence, the mechanical properties of the heat-treated wood materials decreased with the heat treatment process. There were slight differences in the curves of the samples according to Fourier infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses. Morphological characterization showed that the heat treatment triggered large cracks in the cell wall and lumens and the morphological structure of heat-treated wood was affected at large percentages.

  • Reviewpp ###-###Li, P., Wu, S., and Ding, Y. (2024). “Research progress on lignin-based carbon electrode materials in rechargeable batteries,” BioResources 19(2), Page numbers to be added.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignin, with its carbon content of up to 60%, can be an ideal precursor for the preparation of carbon materials. Carbonaceous materials obtained from lignin can be transformed into porous and structural morphologies at different scales, providing a biomass approach to energy conversion and storage in batteries. Focusing on lignin-derived carbon materials, this paper summarizes the different morphologies and structures of lignin-based carbon obtained through different preparation methods, and the different electrochemical properties exhibited by these materials as electrode materials for rechargeable batteries (lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulphur batteries, etc.). In addition, the development prospects and challenges of lignin-based carbon materials in the field of rechargeable batteries are summarized, providing ideas for the next step in the design and development of high-performance lignin-based carbon-based electrode materials.

  • Researchpp 3031-3046Cui, Z., Jiao, Z., Tong, W., and Li, P. (2024). “Stress-strain constitutive models along the grain of original bamboo based on classification,” BioResources 19(2), 3031-3046.AbstractArticlePDF

    To establish the constitutive model of original bamboo, the tensile and compressive tests along the grain of original bamboo were investigated. The original bamboo was graded according to the elastic modulus, and a stress-strain constitutive model of original bamboo was proposed. The results of the study show that the tensile failure mode of original bamboo along the grain is brittle failure, and the compression along the grain is ductile failure. The bamboo was divided into three grades I, II, and III, and the proportion of II and II was more than 80%. A linear constitutive model was used for tension along the grain of original bamboo, a “three-fold” model was used for simplified constitutive model for compression along the grain, and the Sargin model was used for accurate constitutive model. The classification method proposed in this paper can result in the efficient utilization of bamboo resources, and the proposed constitutive model can promote the analysis and engineering application of original bamboo architecture.

  • Researchpp 3047-3059Župčić, I., Đukić, I., and Hasan, M. (2024). “Influence of the depth of friction-welded dowels on the strength of rotary welded joints,” BioResources 19(2), 3047-3059.AbstractArticlePDF

    One of the important factors in rotary welding is the depth of welding of the dowel as well as the direction of welding of the dowel. In the studied interval (welding depth of 15 to 30 mm), the pull-out force increased when welding the dowel parallel to the wood grain and perpendicular to the wood grain. The strength of the welded joint increased from 15 to 20 mm, and then it continuously decreased towards a welding depth of 30 mm. The reason for this is that the tip of the dowel is intensively worn, and with a welding depth of 20 mm, it is approximately equal to the diameter of the hole. Therefore, by increasing the welding depth, the pull-out force increases slightly (due to the friction between the dowel and the hole wall), and the strength of the joint decreases. The highest joint strength was achieved at a welding depth of 20 mm for specimens welded parallel to the grain (PV) and specimens welded perpendicular to the grain (RTV). In welded joints where the dowels are loaded only by tensile force, it is recommended to use a welding depth of 30 mm.

  • Researchpp 3060-3077Wang, C.-K., Zhao, P., and Yang, J.-L. (2024). “Effect of wood surface finish on wood species classification using spectral reflectance,” BioResources 19(2), 3060-3077.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wood species can be classified by spectral reflectance. It is unclear whether finish coated on the wood surface affects the accuracy of wood species classification. This paper focused on this issue, using the spectral reflectance of 8 different kinds of finish for wood species classification. The spectral reflectance of wood surface coated with finish was modified by the transfer model in order to reduce the effect of finish on classification accuracy. The experimental results show that it is not feasible to use the spectral reflectance of wood samples coated with finish directly to classify wood species; the best classification accuracy using the eight finishes was 30%. After correcting the spectrum of wood samples coated with finishes with the direct standardization (DS) transfer model, the classification accuracy of the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum was close to that of the original spectrum without finish. However, the visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectrum did not achieve a good classification effect after correction with the DS transfer model.

  • Researchpp 3078-3094Kariž, M., Šega, B., Šernek, M., Žigon, J., and Merela, M. (2024). “Bonding properties of selected alien invasive wood species,” BioResources 19(2), 3078-3094.AbstractArticlePDF

    Invasive alien plant species pose a significant challenge to European ecosystems. They displace native vegetation, damage agricultural land, and annually cost the European economy billions of euros. Many of them are removed daily and mainly burned, although some of them produce lignocellulosic material that could be used in place of native wood species. In this study, the bonding properties of selected invasive wood species in Slovenia were tested using standard methods. Wood lamellas were produced according to the SIST EN 205 standard from Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Robinia pseudoacacia, Gleditsia triacanthos and Acer negundo and glued with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and one-component polyurethane (PU) adhesive. The results showed that selected wood species can be bonded well with both adhesives (bond shear strengths from 7.2 to 15.1 N/mm2), although there were large variations due to the heterogeneity of the wood material. The differences in the shear strength of the bonds were mainly due to the different densities of the wood (479 to 702 kg/m3) species and the high variability in material properties (for example porosity from 0.54 to 0.68 and shear strength in tangential direction from 11.2 to 21.1 N/mm2), which are related to the anatomical characteristics of the individual wood species.

  • Researchpp 3095-3105Im, W., Youn, H. J., and Lee. H. L. (2024). “Evaluation of print mottle of double coated paper by octave band filtering technique,” BioResources 19(2), 3095-3105.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effects of the pre-coating color formulation, dwell time, and coat weights of pre- and top- coating layers on print mottle of double-coated paper were investigated using an octave band filtering image processing technique. To investigate the effect of pre-coating color formulations, six types of coating colors were used. Mottle index and coefficient of variance (COV) of double-coated paper increased as the size of pre-coating pigment particles decreased, which was attributed to the reduction in relative pore size of the pre-coating layer. Decreasing the dwell time decreased transfer time from the coating head to dryer of a Maiyoh coater. As the transfer time to dryer decreased, the mottle index and COV increased because of uneven distribution of latex within the coating layer. Pre-coat weight was found to have a greater impact on print mottle than the top-coat weight.

  • Researchpp 3106-3120Govindarajan, P. R.,  Shanmugavel, R.,  Palanisamy, S., Khan, T., and Ahmed, O. S. (2024). “Crash-worthiness analysis of hollow hybrid structural tube by aluminum with basalt-bamboo hybrid fiber laminates by roll wrapping method,” BioResources 19(2), 3106-3120.AbstractArticlePDF

    Hollow hybrid structural tubes were evaluated using commercial-grade Diamond Micro Expanded Mesh (DMEM) thin mesh of aluminum (Al) as structural reinforcement. Axial, transverse (flexural), and radial compression tests were performed on four different layered hybrid structures using bamboo (Bm) and basalt (B). With a maximum force of 34.7 kN, compressive ultimate strength of 238 MPa, and strain of 12.6%, AlBmB (with layers labeled from inside to outside) was the best performer in the axial compression test. AlBmB’s adaptability was demonstrated by the flexural test, showing a maximum bending force of 4.7 kN, a flexural strength of 97.7 MPa, and a decreased deflection of 13.2 mm. Radial compression test results underscored the superior energy absorption characteristics of AlBmB. The varying material interfaces in the hybrid tubes yielded distinctive performances. AlBmB, incorporating bamboo and basalt layers, stood out with superior energy absorption and crush force characteristics, indicating enhanced crashworthiness. The other hybrids AlBm, AlB, and BmB also exhibited commendable performances, emphasizing the adaptability of different material combinations. The meticulous selection of DMEM and innovative roll wrapping method for fabrication reliably influenced the tubes’ mechanical properties. The study contributes to advancing the design of lightweight, durable, and high-strength components.

  • Researchpp 3121-3137Dias, A. M. P. G., Machado, J. S., Mascarenhas, F. J. R., Morgado, T. F. M., Pedrosa, N. G., Carneiro, L. C. P., and Marques, A. F. S. (2024). “Reuse of wooden utility poles through the combination of new and old elements,” BioResources 19(2), 3121-3137.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wooden utility poles are crucial in supporting overhead telecommunication lines in Portugal. Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) is the most common wood species used for this purpose. The durability of the poles is typically determined by the deterioration observed in their ground line. Aiming to reduce the use of new sound wooden poles, reducing the economic costs involved, and the environmental impacts, the reuse of those old wooden poles by removing the degraded part is one possible solution. This study aimed to develop and validate solutions with composed poles, specifically for the connections between the wood members, so that it is possible to more efficiently incorporate used parts into the remanufactured poles. Two types of connections were used: members joined by a cylindrical steel tube, and members joined by finger joints. The static bending moduli of elastic and rupture were tested. The mechanical properties of the reused wooden utility poles showed to be in line with the values of new sound wooden poles made of different wood species. Finally, both proposed solutions proved to be practical for use in the production of reused utility poles, which are mostly made from old timber poles.

  • Researchpp 3138-3148Gunes, M., Ersin, C., and Altunok, M. (2024). “Effect of climate and wood type on elastic modulus of heat-treated wood and its optimization by the Taguchi method,” BioResources 19(2), 3138-3148.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wood, as the oldest building material, provides some of the basic needs of human beings, including shelter and protection. Wood is used in exterior cladding, carrier systems, joinery, ceiling-floor coverings, windows, doors, and furniture production. When wooden material is exposed to external weather conditions, due to its hygroscopic structure, its physical and mechanical properties deteriorate from exposure to moisture, temperature, and biological organisms. The bending modulus of elasticity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oak (Quercus petraea L.), and chestnut (Castanea sativa M.) wood that was tannin-impregnated and heat-treated at 160 °C, was investigated using Taguchi L9 (33). The sequence was optimized. After heat treatment, the carrier elements were subjected to artificial climate conditions. In the optimization of the data obtained, it was understood that the highest impact factor was the tree type. In contrast, the climate on the elastic modulus was the lowest impact factor. In Taguchi analysis, a mathematical prediction model was created using actual and predicted data using the S/N ratio’s biggest-best equation. The R2 of the model can be predicted with an accuracy rate of 98.6%.


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