NC State
  • Researchpp 5741-5751Khademibami, L., Rezaei, F., Shmulsky, R., and Fatemi, S. A.   (2024). “Field test of sticker thickness in kiln drying of southern pine,” BioResources 19(3), 5741-5751.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effect of sticker thickness on final moisture content (MC) of southern pine lumber was investigated in this work. Three kiln charges of lumber were dried to examine the impact of sticker thickness. Sticker thicknesses were 0.75-, 1.00-, and 1.25-in. The moisture contents at different locations within the kiln pack (edge vs middle / course position) were noted. Three course positions were top 5, middle, and bottom 5 courses. Two within-pack locations were considered: outer 25% and middle 50%. Drying time decreased as sticker thickness increased from 0.75 in. to 1.00 in. Statistically significant interactions were noted for sticker thickness and course position (<0.0001) as well as location and course position (P= 0.0378); 1.25 in. thick stickers exhibited higher MC in comparison to 0.75 in. and 1.0 in. for top to bottom positions. Additionally, 1.0 in. thick stickers developed lower MC at the top and bottom. Lower MC was observed in outer relative to inner location regardless of course position. Lower MCs were observed at the top courses for both inner and outer location. The 1.25 in. thick stickers did not produce acceptably dry lumber given the production time constraint. The results suggested that 1.0 in. sticker thickness was most favorable.

  • Researchpp 5752-5763Muslu, A., Üçüncü, O., and Baltacı, C. (2024). “Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from non-edible lignocellulosic food wastes,” BioResources 19(3), 5752-5763.AbstractArticlePDF

    The compound 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) has emerged as a versatile intermediate with the ability to undergo conversion into both fuel and a variety of platform chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass, such as hazelnut shells and tea processing residues, was employed in this study for HMF production through two distinct methods. In the first method, cellulose from biomass was converted to sugars using a 4% acid solution, followed by catalytic conversion with NaCl/CrCl3.6H2O. After a 1-h reaction at 131 °C in a high-pressure system, HMF was obtained from tea processing waste and hazelnut shells with yields of 8.6% (82.3 mg/g) and 6.7% (66.7 mg/g), respectively. The second method involved LiCl/NaCl-doped N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) as an ionic solvent system for HMF production. After a 2-h reaction at 131 °C in the DMA-NaCl/[EMIM]Cl ionic solvent system, HMF was obtained from tea processing waste and hazelnut shell celluloses with yields of 5.7% (57.5 mg/g) and 3.1% (31.3 mg/g), respectively. This study contributes to the economic conversion of various food wastes into valuable chemicals, highlighting the potential of lignocellulosic biomass in sustainable chemical production.

  • Reviewpp ###-###Hubbe, M. A., Sjöstrand, B., Lestelius, M., Håkansson, H., Swerin, A., and Henriksson, G. (2024). “Swelling of cellulosic fibers in aqueous systems: A Review of chemical and mechanistic factors,” BioResources 19(3), Page numbers to be added.AbstractArticlePDF

    Factors affecting the swelling of cellulosic fibers are considered in this review.  Emphasis is placed on aqueous systems and papermaking fibers, but the review also considers cellulose solvent systems, nanocellulose research, and the behavior of cellulosic hydrogels.  The topic of swelling of cellulosic fibers ranges from effects of humid air, continuing through water immersion, and extends to hydrogels and the dissolution of cellulose, as well as some of its derivatives.  The degree of swelling of cellulose fibers can be understood as involving a balance between forces of expansion (especially osmotic pressure) vs. various restraining forces, some of which involve the detailed structure of layers within the fibril structure of the fibers.  The review also considers hornification and its effects related to swelling. The expansive forces are highly dependent on ionizable groups, pH, and the ionic strength of solution.  The restraining forces depend on the nature of lignin, cellulose, and their detailed structural arrangements.

  • Researchpp 5764-5792Abdul Latif, A., Shuhaida, H., Sajab, M. S., Markom, M. (2024). “Lab to pilot scale assessment on the pretreatment of empty fruit bunch using anhydrous ammonia,” BioResources 19(3), 5764-5792.AbstractArticlePDF

    Laboratory and pilot scale pretreatment processes were assessed for empty fruit bunch (EFB) at different morphologies using anhydrous ammonia pretreatment (AAP). The AAP was used to deconstruct the complex structure of EFB through physical and chemical reaction to promote efficient conversion of the carbohydrates to monomeric sugars. Different morphologies of EFB samples used were unpressed EFB (UE), pressed EFB (PE), pressed and shredded EFB (PES), and lastly pressed, shredded and ground EFB (PESG). The APP process was optimized using a 1.0 L laboratory scale reactor and further scaled up to a 22 L pressure vessel (AAPB). AAP-PESG contained 76.2%, and AAP-PES contained 75.5% of structural carbohydrates, showing no significant difference. AAP-UE showed the lowest glucan conversion of 28%. The optimal laboratory conditions adopted were 135 °C, 30 min, moist to dry EFB loading of 2:1, and ammonia to dry EFB loading of 1:1. Glucan conversion of AAP-PES were 87%, 80%, and 62% at 1%, 3%, and 6% glucan loadings, respectively. The AAP-PES detected acetamide concentration at 7.3 mg/g, while AAPB-PES was only at 4.4 mg/g. Chemical composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer Emmett Teller surface area, and scanning electron microscopy supported the assessment of AAP and AAPB processes.

  • Researchpp 5793-5810Selim, S., Alruwaili, Y. S., Manni, E., Atif, M., Almuhayawi, M. S., Alruhaili, M. H., Bazuhair, M. A., Abdelkareem, E. M., Alammari, B. S., Al Jaouni, S. K. (2024). “Dynamic extraction time’s effect on phytochemical characterization of Vitex agnus-castus dry biomass with healing properties and their activity against microorganisms and ovarian cancer,”  BioResources 19(3), 5793-5810.AbstractArticlePDF


    Efficacies of plant metabolites are known to be dependent on their extraction methods. Yields and compositions of phytoconstituents in the extract were evaluated following supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vitex agnus-castus leaves, static extraction times (SET) for 30 min, subsequently dynamic extraction time (DET) for 30 min (condition A) and SET for 0 min followed by DET for 60 min (condition B). The extract exposed to condition B gave an extraction yield of 0.169 g compared to 0.115 g for condition A. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed compounds including cinnamic acid, kaempferol, ferulic acid, rutin, and caffeic acid, in high concentrations in the extract exposed to condition B. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans were more affected by the condition B with 32 ± 0.1, 20 ± 0.2, 32 ± 0.2, 35 ± 0.2, and 40 ± 0.1 mm inhibition zones, respectively. Less MIC and MBC were noticed of the exposed extract to condition B than to condition A against C. albicans and bacteria. The IC50 of the extract exposed to condition B was high against ovarian tumor cells. Presently the efficacy of the exposed extract to condition B for wound healing process was documented.

  • Researchpp 5811-5824Prochazka, P., and Abrhám, J. (2024). “Evaluation of environmental assets value on Borneo using the travel cost method,” BioResources 19(3), 5811-5824.AbstractArticlePDF

    Rainforests, as invaluable natural resources, play a pivotal role globally, offering many ecosystem services such as recreation. This study aims to quantify the value of Brunei’s rainforest assets (specifically recreational areas and national parks) utilizing the Travel Cost Method (TCM), a prevalent approach for ascertaining the worth of natural sites. The tourism use of Brunei’s rainforests holds a high value, estimated at over $300,000 USD per square kilometer, which supports the argument for resource allocation towards their protection not only for ecological reasons but also for their recreational benefits. The authors posit that nature-based ecotourism can be a sustainable and protective mechanism for tropical rainforests. Practical recommendations for ecotourism include a minimalist approach to visitor regulation, limiting access to a small percentage of large recreational areas and national parks to protect flora and fauna, and possibly implementing entry or service fees.

  • Researchpp 5825-5838Wang, Q., and Chen, Y. (2024). “Applying a Kano-FAST integration approach to design requirements for auditorium chairs,” BioResources 19(3), 5825-5838.AbstractArticlePDF

    The design of auditorium chairs can directly reflect the image of public spaces. At present, the development of public furniture is relatively slow compared to household and office furniture. The design of auditorium chairs on the market is severely homogenized, relying on past experience and lacking scientific guidance. In order to create a better indoor public activity environment for users, from the perspective of user needs, first of all, 21 user needs for auditorium chairs were obtained through semi-structured interviews. Then, the Kano model was used to determine the attribute positioning of each demand. Finally, the FAST method was used to transform user demands into functions, assisting in the design optimization of hall chairs and promoting the future development of public furniture. The results indicate that the design of auditorium chairs must meet safety and stability, and the comfort and rechargeability of the seats are the most important needs of users. In the future, the functional design of auditorium chairs also needs to consider intelligent applications. The study applies a Kano-FAST integration method to the design innovation of auditorium chairs, providing data support for the development of furniture enterprise auditorium chairs and promoting product upgrading and optimization.

  • Researchpp 5839-5846Wang, C., Li, J., Wang, T.,  Chu, Q., and Wang, X. (2024). “Fused deposition 3D printing of bonsai tree guiding mold based on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer,” BioResources 19(3), 5839-5846.AbstractArticlePDF

    Bonsai is a kind of classical art in China and Japan. The traditional method of bonsai shaping of miniature trees is technical and usually requires experienced horticulturists to successfully carry out the process. In order to let ordinary people feel the fun of bonsai shaping, this paper proposes a fast bonsai shaping method, i.e., by use of a plastic guiding mold with customized shape, which is processed by fused deposition 3D printing technology. The tree seedling is bundled onto the mold, and the shape of the mold guides the growth of the tree seedling, thus achieving the purpose of bonsai shaping. In order to further improve the bending properties of the bonsai guiding mold, this paper investigated the main 3D printing parameters of ABS filament. The results showed that with the decrease of printing speed, the increase of extrusion temperature, and the increase of hot bed temperature, the bending strength and elastic modulus of ABS specimens increased, and the bending properties was enhanced; the optimal printing speed was 50 mm/s, the extrusion temperature was 230 °C, and the hot bed temperature was 80 °C. The mechanical properties of the bonsai guiding mold manufactured based on the optimal process parameters were better, the print quality was higher, and it had high practical value.

  • Researchpp 5847-5861Eller, F. J., Kirker, G. T., Mankowski, M. E., and Selling, G. W. (2024). “Butylated hydroxytoluene and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid combined with cedarwood oil as wood treatments for protection from subterranean termites and wood-decaying fungi,” BioResources 19(3), 5847-5861.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effects of the antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the metal chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with cedarwood oil (CWO) were investigated for wood preservation against subterranean termites as well as two species of white-rot decay fungi and two species of brown-rot decay fungi. Vacuum pressure impregnation was used to treat wood blocks. Resistance of the treated wood test blocks was evaluated using a no-choice bioassay for termites and a soil bottle assay wood decay fungi. Eight treatments were tested: H2O only; BHT only; EDTA only; BHT with EDTA; CWO only; CWO with EDTA; CWO with BHT; and CWO with BHT plus EDTA. For termites, the lowest percentage wood mass losses were for the EDTA, BHT, CWO, and CWO/EDTA treatments, all of which were statistically equivalent. Correspondingly, these treatments all had the highest termite mortalities at 100%. The four species of decay fungi were affected differently by the wood treatments; however, overall CWO and EDTA gave the best protection against wood mass loss. The addition of BHT did not decrease mass loss.

  • Researchpp 5862-5879Wu, W., Xu, W., and Wu, S. (2024). “Mechanical performance analysis of double-dovetail joint applied to furniture T-shaped components,” BioResources 19(3), 5862-5879.AbstractArticlePDF

    T-shaped mortise and tenon members are the main structure of traditional Chinese furniture. In this paper, the double-dovetail joint used for face-to-face joint of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) is transformed into a new type of double-dovetail joint and rounded double-dovetail joint for T-shaped members of point joint structure. The ultimate pull-out test and bending strength test were carried out on the two structures and three structures of oval mortise, round rod mortise and right angle mortise. The results show that the ultimate pull-out force of the round double-dovetail joint is 39% higher than that of the double-dovetail joint, and the bending resistance capacity is 8.9% higher, and the strength and stability are better than those of other split mortises and tenons, which proves that this structure can be used in actual production, and also proves that the mortise and tenon connected by the surface has the possibility of transforming into a point connection structure. The concave structure of the rounded double-dovetail joint makes the mortise and tenon fit well, the tenon squeezed tight, and a good bonding effect was achieved. This structure can also provide greater friction and resistance, delay rubber adhesive failure and improve the stability.


54 years ago

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