NC State
  • Researchpp 3916-3933Karlovits, I., Kavčič, U., Trafela, Š., and Žužek Rozman, K. (2021). "Comparison of cyclic voltammetry measurements of paper-based screen printed electrodes via proprietary and open source potentiostats," BioResources 16(2), 3916-3933.AbstractPDF

    The use of screen-printed electrodes in different monitoring applications, e.g., polluted water, biotechnology, agriculture, industrial process control, and other applications, are continuously being developed. New cheap and open-source potentiostats have been recently emerging, in addition to the commercial and proprietary solutions on the market. In this study, paper-based, screen-printed electrodes were utilised as an alternative solution for ceramic-based electrodes and were tested with two potentiostats (proprietary and low-cost open-source running on wireless 64 bit Linux system installed on Raspberry Pi 3+). Unique paper substrates made from invasive plant papers and one commercial product were used for screen electrode printing. Ink layer thicknesses variations and mechanical grinding were applied, and cyclic voltammetry measurements were conducted. The variation in cyclic voltammetry measurements could be attributed to two sources: the potentiostats showed differences in their sensibility and signal values, and paper surface and structure also contributed to differences. Simultaneously, the additional processing steps, e.g., mechanical grinding, introduced additional measurement variations and differences in the measurement process.

  • Researchpp 3934-3941Abe, K. (2021). "Compression-molded products based on wet ball-milled wood and effect of various preparation conditions," BioResources 16(2), 3934-3941.AbstractPDF

    This study prepared compression-molded products from ball-milled wood by thermally plasticizing lignin without adhesives or resins. Wet ball milling for 120 min produced smooth, creamy slurries. The resultant products were hot-pressed at 180 °C and exhibited a plastic-like glossy surface and a high Young’s modulus (7.9 GPa), which was attributed to an increased bonding area. However, hydrogen bond formation occurs more predominantly during wood molding than thermoplasticization of lignin, because a hydrophilic surface was formed on wood fragments after wet ball milling in water. In contrast, when wood powder was ball-milled in toluene, drying aggregation due to hydrogen bond formation hardly occurred probably because the hydrophobic regions were preferentially cleaved. In this case, the hot-pressed product at 180 °C was formed mostly through the bonding owing to the thermoplasticization of lignin. These results suggest that the choice of the solvent for the mechanical disintegration of wood allows for control of the wood fragment surface and can affect the properties of the molded products.

  • Researchpp 3942-3951Yao, N., and Wei, S. (2021). "Characterization and identification of traditional Chinese handmade paper via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," BioResources 16(2), 3942-3951.AbstractPDF

    The traditional method for the identification of paper from different origins relies on microscopy to observe the fiber morphology, which requires professional experience. In this paper, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze five types of traditional Chinese handmade papers, e.g., ramie paper, bamboo paper, bark fiber paper (mulberry paper and kozo paper), and Langdu paper. The results demonstrated that this method can be used to differentiate the four types of handmade papers. A high phenolic compound content was detected in bamboo paper; macromolecular triterpenoids, e.g., β – amyrin, α – amyrin, and stigmastan- 3,5-diene were found in mulberry paper and kozo paper; while those compounds were not found in ramie paper. In particular, a large quantity of phytosterol compounds were found for the first time in Langdu paper. This not only can be used to differentiate Langdu paper from others, but also it helps to explain why Langdu paper can resist insect and mildew activities. Results of the study can provide experimental reference for characterization of traditional handmade Chinese papers via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.


  • Researchpp 3952-3963Sobotková, A., Šimek, M., Pařil, P., Fictum, L., and Szökeová, S. (2021). "Mechanical and physical properties of boards made from recycled paper," BioResources 16(2), 3952-3963.AbstractPDF

    Due to the increasing accumulation of wastes around the world, the demand for sustainable products is increasing. Paper is a commonly disposed of material that can pose problems even when it is recycled. The concept of using cardboard (CB) as a material for furniture production has been around for many years, but CB furniture does not last long. This study examined the feasibility of using post-consumer recycled paper to produce paper-based boards for furniture design. Cardboard (CB) and office paper (OP) were the main post-consumer materials that were used. The CB and OP were mixed with polylactic acid (PLA) and limestone. The boards were made at a temperature of 200 °C and pressed at a pressure of 3.5 N/mm2 using a single opening hydraulic press. The physical and mechanical properties were tested according to the European standards for wood-based panels. Tests that are critical for furniture parts, such as the modulus of rupture (MOR), the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the internal bond, the screw withdrawal resistance, the thickness swelling, and the water absorption were examined. The paperboard samples exceeded some of the requirements for the general use of boards for interior fitments (including furniture) for use in dry conditions (Type P2) and for non-load bearing boards for use in humid conditions (Type P3).

  • Researchpp 3964-3977van der Wijst, C., Ghimire, N., Bergland, W. H., Toven, K., Bakke, R., and Eriksen, Ø. (2021). "Improving carbon product yields in biocarbon production by combining pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion," BioResources 16(2), 3964-3977.AbstractPDF

    Solid carbon is an important raw material in industrial processes. Most of the charcoal produced today is via conventional carbonization, which suffers from huge carbon losses due to system inefficiency. Intermediate pyrolysis is principally similar to conventional carbonization and produces biocarbon while capturing the off gasses; among these off gasses is aqueous condensate, which is difficult to utilize due to the high water content and low energy content. This fraction can contain up to 25% of the carbon from feedstock, so utilization of this fraction is important for good overall carbon balance. Anaerobic digestion can be a promising tool for utilizing the carbon in the aqueous condensate by converting it into biomethane. Here, birch and spruce wood were pyrolyzed and the biomethane potential for the aqueous condensates was tested. The mass and carbon balances of the pyrolysis products of birch and spruce at two pyrolysis temperatures were performed, and biocarbon carbon yields ranging from 42% to 54% were obtained. Anaerobic digestion of the aqueous phases collected from the pyrolysis process was performed, with carbon recovery yields between 44% and 59%. A total carbon recovery of 77.8% to 85.7% was obtained, and the primary carbon losses were identified.

  • Researchpp 3978-3990Li, M., Wang, Z., Sun, J., Chen, W., Hou, X., and Gao, Z. (2021). "Synergistic effect of mixed fungal pretreatment on thermogravimetric characteristics of rice straw," BioResources 16(2), 3978-3990.AbstractPDF

    The thermogravimetric properties and chemical characterization of rice straw (RS) pretreated by mixed culture of white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) and brown-rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum (G. trabeum) were investigated. The mixed fungal pretreatment showed a synergistic effect, which resulted in an energy-efficient pyrolysis of pretreated rice straw. The differences in thermochemical conversion of rice straw before and after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis and the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) method. Furthermore, the pretreated samples were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illuminate the changes in chemical composition and pyrolysis behavior. Compared to single fungal pretreatment, the mixed fungal pretreatment worked better and exhibited great potential in biomass pyrolysis.

  • Researchpp 3991-4006Gu, Z., Zhang, S., Zhu, C., and Wang, L. (2021). "The adsorption of lemon yellow dye using cationic cellulose fibers from rice straw as a sustainable biosorbent in aqueous media," BioResources 16(2), 3991-4006.AbstractPDF

    A biosorbent was prepared from the cellulose fibers found in rice straw through cationic modification. The effects of the dosage, pH, contact time, and initial concentration of lemon yellow dye were explored. The static adsorption results showed that cationic modification drastically improved the adsorption capacity of straw cellulose fiber. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity value was 137.6 mg/g and the highest removal reached 99%. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was a good fit for the adsorption process, together with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption reaction was spontaneous, and the adsorption process was an exothermic reaction, which was shown by the thermodynamic model. As the adsorption time became longer, the effluent concentration became larger until reaching equilibrium. The time was 420 min. After desorption using a dilute NaOH solution, the maximum adsorption capacity was still 36.1 mg/g and the maximum removal still reached 36.2%. The parameters calculated from the Yoon-Nelson model have a good fit with the experimental data. In short, cationic straw cellulose fiber is an effective and easy to prepare biosorbent. This work offers a new method for dye wastewater purification and solves the effective utilization of rice straw resources.

  • Researchpp 4007-4020Xu, W., Liu, J., Sun, K., Liu, Y., Chen, C., Wang, A., and Sun, H. (2021). "Effect of activation temperature on properties of H3PO4-activated carbon," BioResources 16(2), 4007-4020.AbstractPDF

    The effects of different activation temperatures (Ta), ranging from 300 to 750 °C, on the ash content, yield, ignition point, microcrystalline structure, surface functional group, pore structure, and adsorption performance of activated carbon in preparing activated carbon by phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were systematically studied. The yield and volatile content of activated carbon decreased with the increase of Ta, while the ash content, ignition point, and graphitization degree showed the opposite results. The turning point of ash content increasing rate of activated carbon occurred at 500 °C. The thermal decomposition temperature of phosphonate compounds was approximately 450 °C. With increased Ta, micropores were generated first, followed by mesopores. The ignition point of activated carbon was related to the volatile content and the degree of graphitization. Activated carbon with low ash content, high yield, well-developed pore structure and good adsorption performance was prepared at 350 to 425 °C. With increased Ta, the volatile content decreased, and the ignition point of activated carbon increased. At Ta higher than 500 °C, the aromatic and condensed ring structure, graphitization degree, and mesopore ratio of the activated carbon increased, yielding decreased adsorption performance.

  • Researchpp 4021-4026Bal, B. C. (2021). "Effect of span length on the impact bending strength of poplar and pine woods," BioResources 16(2), 4021-4026.AbstractPDF

    Solid wood is an important engineering material. Solid wood has superior properties, such as being renewable, easily processed, relatively inexpensive, and having higher mechanical properties relative to its density than any other engineering materials. Density, moisture content, tree species, knots, cracks, and some other variables influence the mechanical properties of wood. In this study, the effect of span length on the impact bending strength (IBS) of wood was investigated. Poplar and pine wood samples were used as test materials in the experiments. The IBS measurements were carried out following TS 2477 (1976) using a pendulum impact bending machine. Tests were conducted for various span lengths of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 cm. The results indicated that there is a relationship between IBS and span length. The highest impact bending strength was obtained with a span length of 10 cm for poplar and pine wood. The relationship between IBS and span length was parabolic. The coefficients of determination were 0.94 and 0.99 for poplar and pine wood, respectively.

  • Researchpp 4027-4038Kim, K. (2021). "Predicting nail withdrawal resistance and bearing strength of cross-laminated timbers from mixed species," BioResources 16(2), 4027-4038.AbstractPDF

    The increasing demand for sustainable architecture has led to a growing interest in wood structures. Hence, ensuring their structural stability and strength performance is an imperative. This study investigated the nail bearing strength and withdrawal resistance of mixed cross-laminated timber (CLT) using Japanese larch and yellow poplar layers. The mixed CLT was composed of three larch laminas (major) and two yellow poplar laminas (minor). The bearing strength of the mixed CLT decreased as the ratio of the thickness of the minor lamina to nail depth increased. The nail withdrawal resistance differed in the penetration and axial directions of the laminas. In the direction perpendicular to the grain, the withdrawal resistance load of the yellow poplar lamina was measured to be 1.45-times that of the larch lamina. The withdrawal resistance of the mixed CLT with the yellow poplar layer was 17% higher than that with larch. Therefore, the length of the nail used for the mixed CLT should be selected based on the thickness of the minor lamina to achieve efficient bearing and withdrawal resistance of the nail connection.