NC State
  • Researchpp 4769-4779Jayusman, J., and Hakim, L. (2021). "Comparison of the wood anatomy and fibers derived from Indonesian Toona sinensis Roem. and Toona sureni Merr.," BioResources 16(3), 4769-4779.AbstractArticlePDF

    In terms of their anatomy, there is confusion in differentiating between Toona sinensis (Juss.) Roem. and Toona sureni (Blume) Merr. In order to validate the identification of both species, reconfirmation of the primary character differences is required. The objectives of this study are the reconfirmation of the anatomical properties to confirm their differences and the evaluation of the fiber morphology in terms of pulp and paper raw material quality. The results show that there were differences in the gross physical features of the bark and the color of the wood. The wood color of T. sinensis is red-brown and darker, while T. sureni is white-yellow, leading to the nomenclature red and white surian, respectively. An anatomical view of T. sinensis shows that the annual growth ring has indistinct boundaries as a primary distinguishing anatomical feature, while T. sureni shows that the annual growth ring boundaries are distinct. The annual growth ring allows the establishment of intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships as well as its sensitivity to environmental variability. Based on the results, both species have different anatomical properties, and both species are suitable to be used as a raw material for pulp and paper production.

  • Researchpp 4780-4797De, X., Zhang, J., Yang, Y., Du, J., Guo, W., and Li, Z. (2021). "Fractal prediction of frictional force against the interior surface of forming channel coupled with temperature in a ring die pellet machine," BioResources 16(3), 4780-4797.AbstractArticlePDF

    For the biomass ring die pellet machine, the frictional force against the interior surface of the forming channel is the main cause for its frictional wear and also is key to the research of wear mechanism as well as its prediction. In this study, four ring die samples were used to measure and obtain data on their surface morphology. The fractal dimension D and fractal feature G were calculated using the Yardstick method, and lastly a fractal prediction model of sliding frictional force against the interior surface of forming channel was built, which was coupled with a fractal model of temperature distribution over friction surface. Numerical simulation, as well as friction-wear test were conducted to verify the accuracy of the model. The result showed that: when Ar < Arc, the slope of F was larger, which means the frictional force increased more rapidly, and the larger slope of FD represented a rapidly decreasing unit of frictional force. When true contact area Ar = 3.93%, Aa, FT, and FTD increased with the increase in temperature; FT increased rapidly at first and then gradually slowed down. When Ar was small, FTD increased sharply with the increase in temperature.

  • Researchpp 4798-4813Badamchizadeh, S., Jahan Latibari, A., Tajdini, A., Pourmousa, S., and Lashgari, A. (2021). "Modeling current and future role of agricultural waste in the production of bioethanol for gasoline vehicles," BioResources 16(3), 4798-4813.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study addressed the urgent need for biofuels even in countries such as Iran, which has fairly good fossil fuel resources. The problems, necessities of the present, and future demand for biofuels are discussed. As the transportation sector is one of the largest sources of air pollution, this study has focused on this sector. This issue was examined from a global perspective, and then within the context of domestic bioethanol production using agricultural residues and proposing different scenarios. The first step in implementing this policy is the accurate forecast of the demand for second-generation bioethanol in the coming years. A nonlinear auto regressive neural network was applied to predict gasoline demand based on Mackey-Glass chaotic time series. Gasoline demand is forecasted by 2030, based on projected volumes of gasoline in different bioethanol mixture scenarios. Results revealed that using scenarios E10, E15, E25, the volume of bioethanol needed by 2030 will amount to 10.12, 15.16 and 25.31 million L per day which can be produced using agricultural products wastes.

  • Researchpp 4814-4830Wang, Z., Ma, D., Wang, W., Qian, W., Guo, X., Huan, J., and Gao, Z. (2021). "A case-based reasoning method for discriminating damage levels in ancient wood components based on fuzzy similarity priority," BioResources 16(3), 4814-4830.AbstractArticlePDF

    In order to rapidly identify internal damage levels accurately in ancient wood components, stress wave detection technology was used to perform simulated damage tests on pine specimens. Based on the detected wave velocity data, the diameter of the specimen, the attenuation coefficient, and the ratio of the wave velocities on the four paths were selected as the discriminant factors for identifying the level of internal damage in the specimens. A case-based reasoning method for discriminating internal damage levels in ancient wood components based on fuzzy similarity priority was proposed. A fuzzy similarity priority relationship between the target case and the source case was established. By introducing the idea of variable weights, the weight of each discriminant factor was determined via the “penalize-excitation” variable weight function. The comprehensive similarity sequences between the target case and the source case were obtained. The source case that was most similar to the target case was used to determine the damage level of the target case. The results showed that this method can quickly and accurately identify the damage levels in ancient wood components, which provides a new method for the safe evaluation of ancient wood buildings.

  • Researchpp 4831-4845Iglesias, M. C., Hamade, F., Aksoy, B., Jiang, Z., Davis, V. A., and Peresin, M. S. (2021). "Correlations between rheological behavior and intrinsic properties of nanofibrillated cellulose from wood and soybean hulls with varying lignin content," BioResources 16(3), 4831-4845.AbstractArticlePDF

    Effects of raw material and chemical composition were considered relative to the intrinsic properties and the rheological behavior of nanofibrillated cellulose aqueous suspensions (CNFs). Atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface chemistry analysis, thermal gravimetrical analysis, and zeta-potential were used to study the morphology, chemical composition, charge density, as well as thermal and colloidal stability of the different CNFs. Regarding the rheological properties of the samples, steady-state and oscillation studies of the CNF aqueous suspensions obtained from wood and soybean hulls were performed. An interesting correlation was found between the rheological behavior of CNF suspensions and their intrinsic properties. Soybean CNF presented lower viscosities than wood samples, which could be related to their morphology and charge density. Additionally, unbleached soybean CNF (sb-LCNF) showed yield stress compared with the other samples, which could be attributed to the presence of pectin. Furthermore, the different chemical compositions between the samples affected their thermal properties, as well as on their crystallinity.

  • Researchpp 4846-4861Costa Vieira, J., Vieira, A. C., Mendes, A. O., Carta, A. M., Fiadeiro, P. T., and Costa, A. P. (2021). "Mechanical behavior of toilet paper perforation," BioResources 16(3), 4846-4861.AbstractArticlePDF

    Perforation is used in multilayer tissue products, such as toilet and kitchen papers, as part of the converting process. Perforation facilitates the detachment of consecutive sheets by the user. The compromise between the strength required to detach a perforated sheet and the strength required to break a sheet affects the perforation efficiency. In this work, the mechanical behaviors of 15 commercial papers from different European producers were studied. A morphological analysis of the materials was performed, followed by the determination of their perforation efficiency (through tensile tests). A qualitative analysis of the cuts quality, along with a quantitative analysis of the same cuts dimensions was performed through an optical system. Finally, the stress concentration in the holes and the influence of the cuts distance were analyzed using a finite element model implemented in Abaqus/Standard finite element software. The results showed that a cut distance of 2.0 mm should not be used in these types of papers, and the perforation efficiency increased with the cut distance, regardless of the number of plies in the toilet paper. The stress concentration factor was also determined to have a limit value of 0.11. Papers above this limit value tear at the perforation line, as desired.

  • Researchpp 4862-4875Bajzecerová, V., Kanócz, J., Kormaníková, E., Karľa, V., Orolin, P., and Vranay, F. (2021). "Normal stress distribution of timber-concrete composite panels with an adhesive shear connection under thermal and humidity loadings," BioResources 16(3), 4862-4875.AbstractArticlePDF

    Humidity and temperature conditions have a substantial influence on the stresses and total deformation of timber-concrete composite panels, especially in terms of the high rigidity of the shear connection. In the present research, the normal stresses that resulted from the hygrothermal load of timber-concrete composite panels with an adhesive shear connection were analyzed. Three timber-concrete composite panel specimens were placed in controlled climate conditions. Strains in two orthogonal directions were measured. The stress distribution resulted from an approximate analytical calculation model. The results show that the highest stresses occurred near the shear connection. An increase in timber moisture content by 2.1% was predicted to result in exceeding the flexural tensile strength in the concrete perpendicular to the timber grain direction. At an outdoor temperature range, stresses influenced only by the temperature alone will possibly not cause a failure of timber or concrete. Under winter environmental conditions, the stress in timber can possibly reach 12% of the bending strength of the timber used.

  • Researchpp 4876-4890Niini, A., Tanninen, P., Varis, J., and Leminen, V. (2021). "Effects of press-forming parameters on the dimensional stability of paperboard trays," BioResources 16(3), 4876-4890.AbstractArticlePDF

    The dimensional stability of press-formed paperboard trays was investigated during heating and cooling of trays packed with oatmeal. Female mold tool temperature, dwell time, pressing force, and blank holding force were altered in the press-forming of the trays to observe their impacts on the dimensional stability. Dimensional measurements of the trays showed reduced tray width, and the trays exhibited distortions on the tray flange and outer wall. The results showed smaller effects on the tray length, parallel to the machine direction of the material. Improved dimensional stability of the trays was found with a 180 °C female mold tool temperature, a 600-ms dwell time, a 150-kN pressing force, and a 1.44-kN blank holding force. The optimal press-forming parameters were concluded to enhance bonding of the paperboard fibers during the press-forming. The optimization of the press-forming parameters was found necessary to reduce the observed negative response of the material to the challenging environmental conditions in the production of prepared food.

  • Researchpp 4891-4904Bardak, S., Bardak, T., Peker, H., Sözen, E., and Çabuk, Y. (2021). "Predicting effects of selected impregnation processes on the observed bending strength of wood, with use of data mining models," BioResources 16(3), 4891-4904.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wood materials have been used in many products such as furniture, stairs, windows, and doors for centuries. There are differences in methods used to adapt wood to ambient conditions. Impregnation is a widely used method of wood preservation. In terms of efficiency, it is critical to optimize the parameters for impregnation. Data mining techniques reduce most of the cost and operational challenges with accurate prediction in the wood industry. In this study, three data-mining algorithms were applied to predict bending strength in impregnated wood materials (Pinus sylvestris L. and Millettia laurentii). Models were created from real experimental data to examine the relationship between bending strength, diffusion time, vacuum duration, and wood type, based on decision trees (DT), random forest (RF), and Gaussian process (GP) algorithms. The highest bending strength was achieved with wenge (Millettia laurentii) wood in 10 bar vacuum and the diffusion condition during 25 min. The results showed that all algorithms are suitable for predicting bending strength. The goodness of fit for the testing phase was determined as 0.994, 0.986, and 0.989 in the DT, RF, and GP algorithms, respectively. Moreover, the importance of attributes was determined in the algorithms.

  • Researchpp 4905-4923Shen, H., Xing, X., Guan, Y., Zhou, L., Liu, S., and Gao, H. (2021). "Radial variation studies on wood properties of Populus deltoides parents and their hybrids," BioResources 16(3), 4905-4923.AbstractArticlePDF

    The radial variation and the genetic variation of wood properties between the parents and offspring of Populus deltoides were studied in this work. The chemical composition, density, and anatomical characteristics of Populus deltoides cl. ‘Danhong’ and its offspring exhibited the phenomenon of transgressive segregation. The chemical compositions of the parents and offspring were decreased in several attributes (benzene alcohol extract, hemicelluloses, lignin) with the increase of the cambial age. Moreover, the fibre length, fibre width, ratio of fibre length to width, and wall thickness to lumen ratio of parents and offspring were increased with cambial age. In addition, the densities of parents and offspring were increased with the increase of cambial age. There were significant differences in wood properties among Populus deltoides and its hybrids. These results indicated that Populus deltoides cl. ‘Danhong’ could be considered as pulp material and Populus deltoides cl. ‘Nanyang’ as building material. According to the radial variation rule of each material character, the rotation cutting period can be selected as years 7 or 8.